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The Hobbit Arkenstone Descriptive Essay

This article is about the novel. For the 2012–2014 film series, see The Hobbit (film series). For other uses, see The Hobbit (disambiguation).

"There and Back Again" redirects here. For other uses, see There and Back Again (disambiguation).

The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien. It was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in children's literature.

The Hobbit is set in a time "between the Dawn of Færie and the Dominion of Men",[1] and follows the quest of home-loving hobbitBilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into more sinister territory.[2]

The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity, competence, and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey, and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense.[3] The story reaches its climax in the Battle of the Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.

Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story. The author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in fairy tales are often noted as influences.

The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial success and, therefore, requested a sequel. As Tolkien's work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled.

The work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, screen, radio, board games, and video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits.

Characters[edit]

Main article: List of The Hobbit characters

Bilbo Baggins, the titular protagonist, is a respectable, reserved hobbit.[4][5] During his adventure, Bilbo often refers to the contents of his larder at home and wishes he had more food. Until he finds a magic ring, he is more baggage than help. Gandalf, an itinerant wizard,[6] introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves. During the journey the wizard disappears on side errands dimly hinted at, only to appear again at key moments in the story. Thorin Oakenshield, the proud, pompous[7][8] head of the company of dwarves and heir to the destroyed dwarvish kingdom under the Lonely Mountain, makes many mistakes in his leadership, relying on Gandalf and Bilbo to get him out of trouble, but he proves himself a mighty warrior. Smaug is a dragon who long ago pillaged the dwarvish kingdom of Thorin's grandfather and sleeps upon the vast treasure.

The plot involves a host of other characters of varying importance, such as the twelve other dwarves of the company; two types of elves: both puckish and more serious warrior types;[9]Men; man-eating trolls; boulder-throwing giants; evil cave-dwelling goblins; forest-dwelling giant spiders who can speak; immense and heroic eagles who also speak; evil wolves, or wargs, who are allied with the goblins; Elrond the sage; Gollum, a strange creature inhabiting an underground lake; Beorn, a man who can assume bear form; and Bard the Bowman, a grim but honourable archer of Lake-town.[8][10]

Plot[edit]

Gandalf tricks Bilbo into hosting a party for Thorin and his band of dwarves, who sing of reclaiming the Lonely Mountain and its vast treasure from the dragon Smaug. When the music ends, Gandalf unveils a map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the dumbfounded Bilbo serve as the expedition's "burglar". The dwarves ridicule the idea, but Bilbo, indignant, joins despite himself.

The group travels into the wild, where Gandalf saves the company from trolls and leads them to Rivendell, where Elrond reveals more secrets from the map. Passing over the Misty Mountains, they are caught by goblins and driven deep underground. Although Gandalf rescues them, Bilbo gets separated from the others as they flee the goblins. Lost in the goblin tunnels, he stumbles across a mysterious ring and then encounters Gollum, who engages him in a game of riddles. As a reward for solving all riddles Gollum will show him the path out of the tunnels, but if Bilbo fails, his life will be forfeit. With the help of the ring, which confers invisibility, Bilbo escapes and rejoins the dwarves, improving his reputation with them. The goblins and Wargs give chase, but the company are saved by eagles before resting in the house of Beorn.

The company enters the black forest of Mirkwood without Gandalf. In Mirkwood, Bilbo first saves the dwarves from giant spiders and then from the dungeons of the Wood-elves. Nearing the Lonely Mountain, the travellers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town, who hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise. The expedition travels to the Lonely Mountain and finds the secret door; Bilbo scouts the dragon's lair, stealing a great cup and espying a gap in Smaug's armour. The enraged dragon, deducing that Lake-town has aided the intruder, sets out to destroy the town. A thrush had overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability and reports it to Lake-town defender Bard. Bard's arrow finds the hollow spot and slays the dragon.

When the dwarves take possession of the mountain, Bilbo finds the Arkenstone, an heirloom of Thorin's dynasty, and hides it away. The Wood-elves and Lake-men besiege the mountain and request compensation for their aid, reparations for Lake-town's destruction, and settlement of old claims on the treasure. Thorin refuses and, having summoned his kin from the Iron Hills, reinforces his position. Bilbo tries to ransom the Arkenstone to head off a war, but Thorin is intransigent. He banishes Bilbo, and battle seems inevitable.

Gandalf reappears to warn all of an approaching army of goblins and Wargs. The dwarves, men and elves band together, but only with the timely arrival of the eagles and Beorn do they win the climactic Battle of Five Armies. Thorin is fatally wounded and reconciles with Bilbo before he dies. Bilbo accepts only a small portion of his share of the treasure, having no want or need for more, but still returns home a very wealthy hobbit.

Concept and creation[edit]

Background[edit]

Further information: Hobbit (word)

In the early 1930s Tolkien was pursuing an academic career at Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College. Several of his poems had been published in magazines and small collections, including Goblin Feet[11] and The Cat and the Fiddle: A Nursery Rhyme Undone and its Scandalous Secret Unlocked,[12] a reworking of the nursery rhymeHey Diddle Diddle. His creative endeavours at this time also included letters from Father Christmas to his children—illustrated manuscripts that featured warring gnomes and goblins, and a helpful polar bear—alongside the creation of elven languages and an attendant mythology, which he had been creating since 1917. These works all saw posthumous publication.[13]

In a 1955 letter to W. H. Auden, Tolkien recollects that he began work on The Hobbit one day early in the 1930s, when he was marking School Certificate papers. He found a blank page. Suddenly inspired, he wrote the words, "In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit." By late 1932 he had finished the story and then lent the manuscript to several friends, including C. S. Lewis[14] and a student of Tolkien's named Elaine Griffiths.[15] In 1936, when Griffiths was visited in Oxford by Susan Dagnall, a staff member of the publisher George Allen & Unwin, she is reported to have either lent Dagnall the book[15] or suggested she borrow it from Tolkien.[16] In any event, Dagnall was impressed by it, and showed the book to Stanley Unwin, who then asked his 10-year-old son Rayner to review it. Rayner's favourable comments settled Allen & Unwin's decision to publish Tolkien's book.[17]

Influences[edit]

One of the greatest influences on Tolkien was the 19th-century Arts and Crafts polymath William Morris. Tolkien wished to imitate Morris's prose and poetry romances,[18] following the general style and approach of the work. The Desolation of Smaug as portraying dragons as detrimental to landscape, has been noted as an explicit motif borrowed from Morris.[19] Tolkien wrote also of being impressed as a boy by Samuel Rutherford Crockett's historical novel The Black Douglas and of basing the Necromancer—Sauron—on its villain, Gilles de Retz.[20] Incidents in both The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings are similar in narrative and style to the novel,[21] and its overall style and imagery have been suggested as having had an influence on Tolkien.[22]

Tolkien's portrayal of goblins in The Hobbit was particularly influenced by George MacDonald's The Princess and the Goblin.[23] However, MacDonald influenced Tolkien more profoundly than just to shape individual characters and episodes; his works further helped Tolkien form his whole thinking on the role of fantasy within his Christian faith.[24]

Tolkien scholar Mark T. Hooker has catalogued a lengthy series of parallels between The Hobbit and Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth. These include, among other things, a hidden runic message and a celestial alignment that direct the adventurers to the goals of their quests.[25]

Tolkien's works show much influence from Norse mythology, reflecting his lifelong passion for those stories and his academic interest in Germanic philology.[26]The Hobbit is no exception to this; the work shows influences from northern European literature, myths and languages,[27] especially from the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda. Examples include the names of characters,[28] such as Fili, Kili, Oin, Gloin, Bifur, Bofur, Bombur, Dori, Nori, Dwalin, Balin, Dain, Nain, Thorin Oakenshield and Gandalf (deriving from the Old Norse names Fíli, Kíli, Oin, Glói, Bivör, Bávörr, Bömburr, Dori, Nóri, Dvalinn, Bláin, Dain, Nain, Þorin Eikinskialdi and Gandálfr).[29] But while their names are from Old Norse, the characters of the dwarves are more directly taken from fairy tales such as Snow White and Snow-White and Rose-Red as collected by the Brothers Grimm. The latter tale may also have influenced the character of Beorn.[30]

Tolkien's use of descriptive names such as Misty Mountains and Bag End echoes the names used in Old Norse sagas.[31] The names of the dwarf-friendly ravens, such as Roäc, are derived from Old Norse words for "raven" and "rook",[32] but their peaceful characters are unlike the typical carrion birds from Old Norse and Old English literature.[33] Tolkien is not simply skimming historical sources for effect: the juxtaposition of old and new styles of expression is seen by Shippey as one of the major themes explored in The Hobbit.[34] Maps figure in both saga literature and The Hobbit.[31] Several of the author's illustrations incorporate Anglo-Saxon runes, an English adaptation of the Germanic runic alphabets.

Themes from Old English literature, and specifically from Beowulf, shape the ancient world Bilbo stepped into. Tolkien, a scholar of Beowulf, counted the epic among his "most valued sources" for The Hobbit.[35] Tolkien was one of the first critics to treat Beowulf as a literary work with value beyond the merely historical, and his 1936 lecture Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics is still required in some Old English courses.[citation needed] Tolkien borrowed several elements from Beowulf, including a monstrous, intelligent dragon.[36] Certain descriptions in The Hobbit seem to have been lifted straight out of Beowulf with some minor rewording, such as when the dragon stretches its neck out to sniff for intruders.[37] Likewise, Tolkien's descriptions of the lair as accessed through a secret passage mirror those in Beowulf. Other specific plot elements and features in The Hobbit that show similarities to Beowulf include the title thief, as Bilbo is called by Gollum and later by Smaug, and Smaug's personality, which leads to the destruction of Lake-town.[38] Tolkien refines parts of Beowulf's plot that he appears to have found less than satisfactorily described, such as details about the cup-thief and the dragon's intellect and personality.[39]

Another influence from Old English sources is the appearance of named blades of renown, adorned in runes. In using his elf-blade Bilbo finally takes his first independent heroic action. By his naming the blade "Sting" we see Bilbo's acceptance of the kinds of cultural and linguistic practices found in Beowulf, signifying his entrance into the ancient world in which he found himself.[40] This progression culminates in Bilbo stealing a cup from the dragon's hoard, rousing him to wrath—an incident directly mirroring Beowulf and an action entirely determined by traditional narrative patterns. As Tolkien wrote, "The episode of the theft arose naturally (and almost inevitably) from the circumstances. It is difficult to think of any other way of conducting the story at this point. I fancy the author of Beowulf would say much the same."[35]

The name of the wizard Radagast is widely recognized to be taken from the name of the Slavic deityRodegast.[41]

The representation of the dwarves in The Hobbit was influenced by his own selective reading of medieval texts regarding the Jewish people and their history.[42] The dwarves' characteristics of being dispossessed of their ancient homeland at the Lonely Mountain, and living among other groups whilst retaining their own culture are all derived from the medieval image of Jews,[42][43] whilst their warlike nature stems from accounts in the Hebrew Bible.[42] The Dwarvish calendar invented for The Hobbit reflects the Jewish calendar in beginning in late autumn.[42] And although Tolkien denied allegory, the dwarves taking Bilbo out of his complacent existence has been seen as an eloquent metaphor for the "impoverishment of Western society without Jews."[43]

Publication[edit]

See also: English-language editions of The Hobbit

George Allen & Unwin Ltd. of London published the first edition of The Hobbit on 21 September 1937 with a print run of 1,500 copies, which sold out by December because of enthusiastic reviews.[44] This first printing was illustrated in black and white by Tolkien, who designed the dust jacket as well. Houghton Mifflin of Boston and New York reset type for an American edition, to be released early in 1938, in which four of the illustrations would be colour plates. Allen & Unwin decided to incorporate the colour illustrations into their second printing, released at the end of 1937.[45] Despite the book's popularity, paper rationing brought on by wartime conditions and not ending until 1949 meant that the Allen & Unwin edition of the book was often unavailable during this period.[46]

Subsequent editions in English were published in 1951, 1966, 1978 and 1995. The novel has been reprinted frequently by many publishers.[47] In addition, The Hobbit has been translated into over forty languages, with more than one published version for some languages.[48]

Revisions[edit]

In December 1937, The Hobbit's publisher, Stanley Unwin, asked Tolkien for a sequel. In response Tolkien provided drafts for The Silmarillion, but the editors rejected them, believing that the public wanted "more about hobbits".[49] Tolkien subsequently began work on The New Hobbit, which would eventually become The Lord of the Rings,[49] a course that would not only change the context of the original story, but lead to substantial changes to the character of Gollum.

In the first edition of The Hobbit, Gollum willingly bets his magic ring on the outcome of the riddle-game, and he and Bilbo part amicably.[9] In the second edition edits, to reflect the new concept of the ring and its corrupting abilities, Tolkien made Gollum more aggressive towards Bilbo and distraught at losing the ring. The encounter ends with Gollum's curse, "Thief! Thief, Thief, Baggins! We hates it, we hates it, we hates it forever!" This presages Gollum's portrayal in The Lord of the Rings.

Tolkien sent this revised version of the chapter "Riddles in the Dark" to Unwin as an example of the kinds of changes needed to bring the book into conformity with The Lord of the Rings, but he heard nothing back for years. When he was sent galley proofs of a new edition, Tolkien was surprised to find the sample text had been incorporated.[50] In The Lord of the Rings, the original version of the riddle game is explained as a "lie" made up by Bilbo under the harmful influence of the Ring, whereas the revised version contains the "true" account.[51] The revised text became the second edition, published in 1951 in both the UK and the US.[52]

Tolkien began a new version in 1960, attempting to adjust the tone of The Hobbit to its sequel. He abandoned the new revision at chapter three after he received criticism that it "just wasn't The Hobbit", implying it had lost much of its light-hearted tone and quick pace.[53]

After an unauthorized paperback edition of The Lord of the Rings appeared from Ace Books in 1965, Houghton Mifflin and Ballantine asked Tolkien to refresh the text of The Hobbit to renew the US copyright.[54] This text became the 1966 third edition. Tolkien took the opportunity to align the narrative even more closely to The Lord of the Rings and to cosmological developments from his still unpublished Quenta Silmarillion as it stood at that time.[55] These small edits included, for example, changing the phrase "elves that are now called Gnomes" from the first[56] and second[57] editions on page 63, to "High Elves of the West, my kin" in the third edition.[58] Tolkien had used "gnome" in his earlier writing to refer to the second kindred of the High Elves—the Noldor (or "Deep Elves")—thinking "gnome", derived from the Greek gnosis (knowledge), was a good name for the wisest of the elves. However, because of its common denotation of a garden gnome, derived from the 16th-century Paracelsus, Tolkien abandoned the term.[59]

Posthumous editions[edit]

Since the author's death, two editions of The Hobbit have been published with commentary on the creation, emendation and development of the text. In The Annotated Hobbit Douglas Anderson provides the entire text of the published book, alongside commentary and illustrations. Later editions added the text of The Quest of Erebor. Anderson's commentary shows many of the sources Tolkien brought together in preparing the text, and chronicles in detail the changes Tolkien made to the various published editions. Alongside the annotations, the text is illustrated by pictures from many of the translated editions, including images by Tove Jansson.[60] The edition also presents a number of little-known texts such as the 1923 version of Tolkien's poem "Iumonna Gold Galdre Bewunden".

With The History of The Hobbit, published in two parts in 2007, John D. Rateliff provides the full text of the earliest and intermediary drafts of the book, alongside commentary that shows relationships to Tolkien's scholarly and creative works, both contemporary and later. Rateliff moreover provides the abandoned 1960s retelling and previously unpublished illustrations by Tolkien. The book keeps Rateliff's commentary separate from Tolkien's text, allowing the reader to read the original drafts as self-contained stories.[32]

Illustration and design[edit]

Tolkien's correspondence and publisher's records show that he was involved in the design and illustration of the entire book. All elements were the subject of considerable correspondence and fussing over by Tolkien. Rayner Unwin, in his publishing memoir, comments: "In 1937 alone Tolkien wrote 26 letters to George Allen & Unwin... detailed, fluent, often pungent, but infinitely polite and exasperatingly precise... I doubt any author today, however famous, would get such scrupulous attention."[61]

Even the maps, of which Tolkien originally proposed five, were considered and debated. He wished Thror's map to be tipped in (that is, glued in after the book has been bound) at first mention in the text, and with the moon-letters (almost identical to Anglo-Saxon runes) on the reverse so they could be seen when held up to the light.[46] In the end the cost, as well as the shading of the maps, which would be difficult to reproduce, resulted in the final design of two maps as endpapers, Thror's map, and the Map of Wilderland, both printed in black and red on the paper's cream background.[63]

Originally Allen & Unwin planned to illustrate the book only with the endpaper maps, but Tolkien's first tendered sketches so charmed the publisher's staff that they opted to include them without raising the book's price despite the extra cost. Thus encouraged, Tolkien supplied a second batch of illustrations. The publisher accepted all of these as well, giving the first edition ten black-and-white illustrations plus the two endpaper maps. The illustrated scenes were: The Hill: Hobbiton-across-the-Water, The Trolls, The Mountain Path, The Misty Mountains looking West from the Eyrie towards Goblin Gate, Beorn's Hall, Mirkwood, The Elvenking's Gate, Lake Town, The Front Gate, and The Hall at Bag-End. All but one of the illustrations were a full page, and one, the Mirkwood illustration, required a separate plate.[64]

Satisfied with his skills, the publishers asked Tolkien to design a dust jacket. This project, too, became the subject of many iterations and much correspondence, with Tolkien always writing disparagingly of his own ability to draw. The runic inscription around the edges of the illustration are a phonetic transliteration of English, giving the title of the book and details of the author and publisher.[65] The original jacket design contained several shades of various colours, but Tolkien redrew it several times using fewer colours each time. His final design consisted of four colours. The publishers, mindful of the cost, removed the red from the sun to end up with only black, blue, and green ink on white stock.[66]

The publisher's production staff designed a binding, but Tolkien objected to several elements. Through several iterations, the final design ended up as mostly the author's. The spine shows runes: two "þ" (Thráin and Thrór) runes and one "d" (door). The front and back covers were mirror images of each other, with an elongated dragon characteristic of Tolkien's style stamped along the lower edge, and with a sketch of the Misty Mountains stamped along the upper edge.[67]

Once illustrations were approved for the book, Tolkien proposed colour plates as well. The publisher would not relent on this, so Tolkien pinned his hopes on the American edition to be published about six months later. Houghton Mifflin rewarded these hopes with the replacement of the frontispiece (The Hill: Hobbiton-across-the Water) in colour and the addition of new colour plates: Rivendell, Bilbo Woke Up with the Early Sun in His Eyes, Bilbo comes to the Huts of the Raft-elves and a Conversation with Smaug, which features a dwarvish curse written in Tolkien's invented script Tengwar, and signed with two "þ" ("Th") runes.[68] The additional illustrations proved so appealing that George Allen & Unwin adopted the colour plates as well for their second printing, with exception of Bilbo Woke Up with the Early Sun in His Eyes.[69]

Different editions have been illustrated in diverse ways. Many follow the original scheme at least loosely, but many others are illustrated by other artists, especially the many translated editions. Some cheaper editions, particularly paperback, are not illustrated except with the maps. "The Children's Book Club" edition of 1942 includes the black-and-white pictures but no maps, an anomaly.[70]

Tolkien's use of runes, both as decorative devices and as magical signs within the story, has been cited as a major cause for the popularization of runes within "New Age" and esoteric literature,[71] stemming from Tolkien's popularity with the elements of counter-culture in the 1970s.[72]

Genre[edit]

The Hobbit takes cues from narrative models of children's literature, as shown by its omniscient narrator and characters that young children can relate to, such as the small, food-obsessed, and morally ambiguous Bilbo. The text emphasizes the relationship between time and narrative progress and it openly distinguishes "safe" from "dangerous" in its geography. Both are key elements of works intended for children,[73] as is the "home-away-home" (or there and back again) plot structure typical of the Bildungsroman.[74] While Tolkien later claimed to dislike the aspect of the narrative voice addressing the reader directly,[75] the narrative voice contributes significantly to the success of the novel.[76] Emer O'Sullivan, in her Comparative Children's Literature, notes The Hobbit as one of a handful of children's books that has been accepted into mainstream literature, alongside Jostein Gaarder's Sophie's World (1991) and J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series (1997–2007).[77]

Tolkien intended The Hobbit as a "fairy-story" and wrote it in a tone suited to addressing children[78] although he said later that the book was not specifically written for children but had rather been created out of his interest in mythology and legend.[79] Many of the initial reviews refer to the work as a fairy story. However, according to Jack Zipes writing in "The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales", Bilbo is an atypical character for a fairy tale.[80] The work is much longer than Tolkien's ideal proposed in his essay On Fairy-Stories. Many fairy tale motifs, such as the repetition of similar events seen in the dwarves' arrival at Bilbo's and Beorn's homes, and folklore themes, such as trolls turning to stone, are to be found in the story.[81]

The book is popularly called (and often marketed as) a fantasy novel, but like Peter Pan and Wendy by J. M. Barrie and The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald, both of which influenced Tolkien and contain fantasy elements, it is primarily identified as being children's literature.[82][83] The two genres are not mutually exclusive, so some definitions of high fantasy include works for children by authors such as L. Frank Baum and Lloyd Alexander alongside the works of Gene Wolfe and Jonathan Swift, which are more often considered adult literature. The Hobbit has been called "the most popular of all twentieth-century fantasies written for children".[84]Jane Chance, however, considers the book to be a children's novel only in the sense that it appeals to the child in an adult reader.[85] Sullivan credits the first publication of The Hobbit as an important step in the development of high fantasy, and further credits the 1960s paperback debuts of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings as essential to the creation of a mass market for fiction of this kind as well as the fantasy genre's current status.[27]

Style[edit]

Tolkien's prose is unpretentious and straightforward, taking as given the existence of his imaginary world and describing its details in a matter-of-fact way, while often introducing the new and fantastic in an almost casual manner. This down-to-earth style, also found in later fantasy such as Richard Adams' Watership Down and Peter Beagle's The Last Unicorn, accepts readers into the fictional world, rather than cajoling or attempting to convince them of its reality.[86] While The Hobbit is written in a simple, friendly language, each of its characters has a unique voice. The narrator, who occasionally interrupts the narrative flow with asides (a device common to both children's and Anglo-Saxon literature),[27] has his own linguistic style separate from those of the main characters.[87]

The basic form of the story is that of a quest,[88] told in episodes. For the most part of the book, each chapter introduces a different denizen of the Wilderland, some helpful and friendly towards the protagonists, and others threatening or dangerous. However the general tone is kept light-hearted, being interspersed with songs and humour. One example of the use of song to maintain tone is when Thorin and Company are kidnapped by goblins, who, when marching them into the underworld, sing:

Clap! Snap! the black crack!

Grip, grab! Pinch, nab!
And down down to Goblin-town

You go, my lad!

This onomatopoeic singing undercuts the dangerous scene with a sense of humour. Tolkien achieves balance of humour and danger through other means as well, as seen in the foolishness and Cockney dialect of the trolls and in the drunkenness of the elven captors.[89] The general form—that of a journey into strange lands, told in a light-hearted mood and interspersed with songs—may be following the model of The Icelandic Journals by William Morris, an important literary influence on Tolkien.[90]

Critical analysis[edit]

Themes[edit]

The evolution and maturation of the protagonist, Bilbo Baggins, is central to the story. This journey of maturation, where Bilbo gains a clear sense of identity and confidence in the outside world, may be seen as a Bildungsroman rather than a traditional quest.[91] The Jungian concept of individuation is also reflected through this theme of growing maturity and capability, with the author contrasting Bilbo's personal growth against the arrested development of the dwarves.[3] Thus, while Gandalf exerts a parental influence over Bilbo early on, it is Bilbo who gradually takes over leadership of the party, a fact the dwarves could not bear to acknowledge.[92] The analogue of the "underworld" and the hero returning from it with a boon (such as the ring, or Elvish blades) that benefits his society is seen to fit the mythic archetypes regarding initiation and male coming-of-age as described by Joseph Campbell.[89] Chance compares the development and growth of Bilbo against other characters to the concepts of just kingship versus sinful kingship derived from the Ancrene Wisse (which Tolkien had written on in 1929) and a Christian understanding of Beowulf.[93]

The overcoming of greed and selfishness has been seen as the central moral of the story.[94] Whilst greed is a recurring theme in the novel, with many of the episodes stemming from one or more of the characters' simple desire for food (be it trolls eating dwarves or dwarves eating Wood-elf fare) or a desire for beautiful objects, such as gold and jewels,[95] it is only by the Arkenstone's influence upon Thorin that greed, and its attendant vices "coveting" and "malignancy", come fully to the fore in the story and provide the moral crux of the tale. Bilbo steals the Arkenstone—a most ancient relic of the dwarves—and attempts to ransom it to Thorin for peace. However, Thorin turns on the Hobbit as a traitor, disregarding all the promises and "at your services" he had previously bestowed.[96] In the end Bilbo gives up the precious stone and most of his share of the treasure to help those in greater need. Tolkien also explores the motif of jewels that inspire intense greed that corrupts those who covet them in the Silmarillion, and there are connections between the words "Arkenstone" and "Silmaril" in Tolkien's invented etymologies.[97]

The Hobbit employs themes of animism. An important concept in anthropology and child development, animism is the idea that all things—including inanimate objects and natural events, such as storms or purses, as well as living things like animals and plants—possess human-like intelligence. John D. Rateliff calls this the "Doctor Dolittle Theme" in The History of the Hobbit, and cites the multitude of talking animals as indicative of this theme. These talking creatures include ravens, a thrush, spiders and the dragon Smaug, alongside the anthropomorphic goblins and elves. Patrick Curry notes that animism is also found in Tolkien's other works, and mentions the "roots of mountains" and "feet of trees" in The Hobbit as a linguistic shifting in level from the inanimate to animate.[98] Tolkien saw the idea of animism as closely linked to the emergence of human language and myth: "...The first men to talk of 'trees and stars' saw things very differently. To them, the world was alive with mythological beings... To them the whole of creation was 'myth-woven and elf-patterned'."[99]

Interpretation[edit]

As in plot and setting, Tolkien brings his literary theories to bear in forming characters and their interactions. He portrays Bilbo as a modern anachronism exploring an essentially antique world. Bilbo is able to negotiate and interact within this antique world because language and tradition make connections between the two worlds. For example, Gollum's riddles are taken from old historical sources, while those of Bilbo come from modern nursery books. It is the form of the riddle game, familiar to both, which allows Gollum and Bilbo to engage each other, rather than the content of the riddles themselves. This idea of a superficial contrast between characters' individual linguistic style, tone and sphere of interest, leading to an understanding of the deeper unity between the ancient and modern, is a recurring theme in The Hobbit.[34]

Smaug is the main antagonist. In many ways the Smaug episode reflects and references the dragon of Beowulf, and Tolkien uses the episode to put into practice some of the ground-breaking literary theories he had developed about the Old English poem in its portrayal of the dragon as having bestial intelligence.[36] Tolkien greatly prefers this motif over the later medieval trend of using the dragon as a symbolic or allegorical figure, such as in the legend of St. George.[100] Smaug the dragon with his golden hoard may be seen as an example of the traditional relationship between evil and metallurgy as collated in the depiction of Pandæmonium with its "Belched fire and rolling smoke" in Milton's Paradise Lost.[101] Of all the characters, Smaug's speech is the most modern, using idioms such as "Don't let your imagination run away with you!"

Just as Tolkien's literary theories have been seen to influence the tale, so have Tolkien's experiences. The Hobbit may be read as Tolkien's parable of World War I with the hero being plucked from his rural home and thrown into a far-off war where traditional types of heroism are shown to be futile.[102] The tale as such explores the theme of heroism. As Janet Croft notes, Tolkien's literary reaction to war at this time differed from most post-war writers by eschewing irony as a method for distancing events and instead using mythology to mediate his experiences.[103] Similarities to the works of other writers who faced the Great War are seen in The Hobbit, including portraying warfare as anti-pastoral: in "The Desolation of Smaug", both the area under the influence of Smaug before his demise and the setting for The Battle of the Five Armies later are described as barren, damaged landscapes.[104]The Hobbit makes a warning against repeating the tragedies of World War I,[105] and Tolkien's attitude as a veteran may well be summed up by Bilbo's comment: "Victory after all, I suppose! Well, it seems a very gloomy business."[103]

Reception[edit]

On first publication in October 1937, The Hobbit was met with almost unanimously favourable reviews from publications both in the UK and the US, including The Times, Catholic World and The New York Post. C. S. Lewis, friend of Tolkien (and later author of The Chronicles of Narnia between 1949 and 1954), writing in The Times reports:

The truth is that in this book a number of good things, never before united, have come together: a fund of humour, an understanding of children, and a happy fusion of the scholar's with the poet's grasp of mythology... The professor has the air of inventing nothing. He has studied trolls and dragons at first hand and describes them with that fidelity that is worth oceans of glib "originality."

Lewis compares the book to Alice in Wonderland in that both children and adults may find different things to enjoy in it, and places it alongside Flatland, Phantastes, and The Wind in the Willows.[106]W. H. Auden, in his review of the sequel The Fellowship of the Ring calls The Hobbit "one of the best children's stories of this century".[107] Auden was later to correspond with Tolkien, and they became friends. The Hobbit was nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction of the year (1938). More recently, the book has been recognized as "Most Important 20th-Century Novel (for Older Readers)" in the Children's Books of the Century poll in Books for Keeps.[108]

Publication of the sequel The Lord of the Rings altered many critics' reception of the work. Instead of approaching The Hobbit as a children's book in its own right, critics such as Randell Helms picked up on the idea of The Hobbit as being a "prelude", relegating the story to a dry-run for the later work. Countering a presentist interpretation are those who say this approach misses out on much of the original's value as a children's book and as a work of high fantasy in its own right, and that it disregards the book's influence on these genres.[27] Commentators such as Paul Kocher,[109] John D. Rateliff[110] and C. W. Sullivan[27] encourage readers to treat the works separately, both because The Hobbit was conceived, published, and received independently of the later work, and to avoid dashing readers' expectations of tone and style.

Legacy[edit]

The Lord of the Rings[edit]

While The Hobbit has been adapted and elaborated upon in many ways, its sequel The Lord of the Rings is often claimed to be its greatest legacy. The plots share the same basic structure progressing in the same sequence: the stories begin at Bag End, the home of Bilbo Baggins; Bilbo hosts a party that sets the novel's main plot into motion; Gandalf sends the protagonist into a quest eastward; Elrond offers a haven and advice; the adventurers escape dangerous creatures underground (Goblin Town/Moria); they engage another group of elves (The Elvenking's realm/Lothlórien); they traverse a desolate region (Desolation of Smaug/the Dead Marshes); they are received and nourished by a small settlement of men (Lake-town/Ithilien); they fight in a massive battle (The Battle of Five Armies/Battle of Pelennor Fields); their journey climaxes within an infamous mountain peak (Lonely Mountain/Mount Doom); a descendant of kings is restored to his ancestral throne (Bard/Aragorn); and the questing party returns home to find it in a deteriorated condition (having possessions auctioned off/the scouring of the Shire).[111]

The Lord of the Rings contains several more supporting scenes, and has a more sophisticated plot structure, following the paths of multiple characters. Tolkien wrote the later story in much less humorous tones and infused it with more complex moral and philosophical themes. The differences between the two stories can cause difficulties when readers, expecting them to be similar, find that they are not.[111] Many of the thematic and stylistic differences arose because Tolkien wrote The Hobbit as a story for children, and The Lord of the Rings for the same audience, who had subsequently grown up since its publication. Further, Tolkien's concept of Middle-earth was to continually change and slowly evolve throughout his life and writings.[112]

In education[edit]

The style and themes of the book have been seen to help stretch young readers' literacy skills, preparing them to approach the works of Dickens and Shakespeare. By contrast, offering advanced younger readers modern teenage-oriented fiction may not exercise their reading skills, while the material may contain themes more suited to adolescents.[113] As one of several books that have been recommended for 11- to 14-year-old boys to encourage literacy in that demographic, The Hobbit is promoted as "the original and still the best fantasy ever written."[114]

Several teaching guides and books of study notes have been published to help teachers and students gain the most from the book. The Hobbit introduces literary concepts, notably allegory, to young readers, as the work has been seen to have allegorical aspects reflecting the life and times of the author.[104] Meanwhile, the author himself rejected an allegorical reading of his work.[115] This tension can help introduce readers to readerly and writerly interpretations, to tenets of New Criticism, and critical tools from Freudian analysis, such as sublimation, in approaching literary works.[116]

Another approach to critique taken in the classroom has been to propose the insignificance of female characters in the story as sexist. While Bilbo may be seen as a literary symbol of small folk of any gender,[117] a gender-conscious approach can help students establish notions of a "socially symbolic text" where meaning is generated by tendentious readings of a given work.[118] By this interpretation, it is ironic that the first authorized adaptation was a stage production in a girls' school.[47]

Adaptations[edit]

Main article: Adaptations of The Hobbit

The first authorized adaptation of The Hobbit appeared in March 1953, a stage production by St. Margaret's School, Edinburgh.[47]The Hobbit has since been adapted for other media many times.

The first motion picture adaptation of The Hobbit, a 12-minute film of cartoon stills, was commissioned from Gene Deitch by William L. Snyder in 1966, as related by Deitch himself.[119][120] This film was publicly screened in New York City.[119][121] In 1969 (over 30 years after first publication), Tolkien sold the film and merchandising rights to The Hobbit to United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum payment of £10,000[122][123] plus a 7.5% royalty after costs, payable to Allen & Unwin and the author.[124] In 1976 (three years after the author's death) United Artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz Company, who trade as Tolkien Enterprises. Since then all "authorized" adaptations have been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises. In 1997 Tolkien Enterprises licensed the film rights to Miramax, which assigned them in 1998 to New Line Cinema.[125] The heirs of Tolkien, including his son Christopher Tolkien, filed suit against New Line Cinema in February 2008 seeking payment of profits and to be "entitled to cancel... all future rights of New Line... to produce, distribute, and/or exploit future films based upon the Trilogy and/or the Films... and/or... films based on The Hobbit."[126][127] In September 2009, he and New Line reached an undisclosed settlement, and he has withdrawn his legal objection to The Hobbit films.[128]

The BBC Radio 4 series The Hobbit radio drama was an adaptation by Michael Kilgarriff, broadcast in eight parts (four hours in total) from September to November 1968. It starred Anthony Jackson as narrator, Paul Daneman as Bilbo and Heron Carvic as Gandalf. The series was released on audio cassette in 1988 and on CD in 1997.[129]

The Hobbit, an animated version of the story produced by Rankin/Bass, debuted as a television movie in the United States in 1977. In 1978, Romeo Muller won a Peabody Award for his teleplay for The Hobbit. The film was also nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, but lost to Star Wars. The adaptation has been called "execrable"[48] and confusing for those not already familiar with the plot.[130]

A children's opera was written and premiered in 2004. Composer and librettist Dean Burry was commissioned by the Canadian Children's Opera Chorus, who produced the premiere in Toronto, Ontario, and subsequently toured it to the Maritime provinces the same year.[131] The opera has since been produced several times in North America including in Tulsa, Sarasota and Toronto.

In Decembers of 2012,[132] 2013,[133] and 2014,[134]Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and New Line Cinema released one part each of a three-part live-action film version produced and directed by Peter Jackson. The titles were The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug, and The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies.

A three-part comic-book adaptation with script by Chuck Dixon and Sean Deming and illustrated by David Wenzel was published by Eclipse Comics in 1989. In 1990 a one-volume edition was released by Unwin Paperbacks. The cover was artwork by the original illustrator David Wenzel. A reprint collected in one volume was released by Del Rey Books in 2001. Its cover, illustrated by Donato Giancola, was awarded the Association of Science Fiction Artists Award for Best Cover Illustration in 2002.[135]

In 1999, The Hobbit: A 3-D Pop-Up Adventure was published, with illustrations by John Howe and paper engineering by Andrew Baron.[136]

ME Games Ltd (formerly Middle-earth Play-by-Mail), which has won several Origins Awards, uses the Battle of Five Armies as an introductory scenario to the full game and includes characters and armies from the book.[137]

Several computer and video games, both licensed and unlicensed, have been based on the story. One of the most successful was The Hobbit, an award-winning computer game published in 1982 by Beam Software and published by Melbourne House with compatibility for most computers available at the time. A copy of the novel was included in each game package.[138] The game does not retell the story, but rather sits alongside it, using the book's narrative to both structure and motivate gameplay.[139] The game won the Golden Joystick Award for Strategy Game of the Year in 1983[140] and was responsible for popularizing the phrase, "Thorin sits down and starts singing about gold."[141]

Collectors' market[edit]

While reliable figures are difficult to obtain, estimated global sales of The Hobbit run between 35[98] and 100[142] million copies since 1937. In the UK The Hobbit has not retreated from the top 5,000 books of Nielsen BookScan since 1995, when the index began, achieving a three-year sales peak rising from 33,084 (2000) to 142,541 (2001), 126,771 (2002) and 61,229 (2003), ranking it at the 3rd position in Nielsens' "Evergreen" book list.[143] The enduring popularity of The Hobbit makes early printings of the book attractive collectors' items. The first printing of the first English-language edition can sell for between £6,000 and £20,000 at auction,[144][145] although the price for a signed first edition has reached over £60,000.[142]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Verne's runic cryptogram from Journey to the Center of the Earth
Dustcover of the first edition of The Hobbit, taken from a design by the author
Runes and the English letter values assigned to them by Tolkien,[62] used in several of his original illustrations and designs for The Hobbit.

TEACHING GUIDE



NOTE TO TEACHERS

(Scroll to the bottom of this page to download a PDF version of this teacher’s guide.)

To download the YMI (Young Minds Inspired) Lesson Plans, go to:
http://ymiclassroom.com/lesson-plans/hobbit/


J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit is a classic book, both because it is a simply written and fast-paced adventure story and because it is set in Middle-earth, one of the great fantasy worlds in English literature. The success of Peter Jackson’s Lord of the Rings film trilogy and other fantasy epics, such as George R. R. Martin’s Game of Thrones novels (which have also been made into an acclaimed HBO television series), has renewed student interest in the high fantasy of Tolkien’s works. Peter Jackson’s cinematic interpretation of The Hobbit will be divided into two films with scheduled release dates of December 2012 and December 2013.

Teachers are encouraged to teach The Hobbit as the cornerstone text in a standards-based unit examining how myths, legends, and folktales influence world building in works of fantasy, and how the motifs of the hero and the quest are developed in great literature. Tolkien’s work pairs well with both classics of antiquity (for example, The Odyssey) as well as contemporary epics (for example, the Harry Potter novels, Star Wars, and The Hunger Games) for comparison and analysis.

The Hobbit’
s chapters are each between seven and twenty-five pages long. Dividing the book into the following eight sections provides reading assignments that are fairly uniform in length and correspond to natural divisions in the story:
 
• Chapter 1: 27 pages
• Chapters 2–4: 26 pages
• Chapters 5–6: 43 pages
• Chapters 7–8: 58 pages
• Chapters 9–10: 30 pages
• Chapters 11–13: 44 pages
• Chapters 14–16: 28 pages
• Chapters 17–19: 30 pages
 
This teacher’s guide provides a resource for integrating The Hobbit within Common Core State Standards-based curriculum. The guide includes biographical and critical backgrounds on Tolkien’s work, suggested writing and research prompts that link the text to source materials, and four or five sections that provide a comprehensive framework for understanding each chapter, including:
 
• plot summary,
• comprehension and open-ended topics for class discussion (many of these topics can be extended beyond one chapter),
• vocabulary items,
• at selected places, critical essays explaining literary conventions and major themes.



ABOUT THIS AUTHOR

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born in 1892 in Bloemfontein, South Africa, where his father was a bank manager. At the age of three, Ronald’s poor health led his mother to move with him and his brother, Hilary, back to England, where they settled in Sarehole, a county village on the outskirts of Birmingham. His father died soon after, and his mother died when he was twelve. His early education was at King Edward’s School in Birmingham, where he showed promise in languages and Old English literature. During his last years at St. Edward’s, Tolkien fell in love with Edith Bratt, also an orphan, and formed close friendships—and an informal literary society—with several of his schoolfellows.
 
In 1911, he entered Exeter College, Oxford, and received a First Class Honours degree in English in 1915. Immediately after graduation he entered the army. In 1916, he married Edith and was shipped to France as World War I raged. After four months on the front lines he was stricken with trench fever and sent home.
 
After the war, he joined the staff of the Oxford English Dictionary (writing entries in the Ws), taught at Leeds University, and was elected to a chair in Anglo-Saxon at Oxford.
 
“And after this, you might say, nothing else really happened. Tolkien came back to Oxford, was Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon for twenty-years, was then elected Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, went to live in a conventional Oxford suburb where he spent the first part of his retirement, moved to a nondescript seaside resort, came back to Oxford after his wife died, and himself died a peaceful death at the age of eighty-one. . . . And that would be that—apart from the strange fact that during these years when ‘nothing happened’ he wrote two books which have become world best-sellers, books that have captured the imagination and influenced the thinking of several million readers.”1
 
The creation of Middle-earth, which occupied Tolkien for sixty years, can be divided into three stages. The first stage, begun at the St. Edward’s School, involved first the creation of languages and then the development of a series of legends that could give these languages a social context in which to develop. These legends soon became important in their own right, a mythic cycle that combined Christian and pagan (especially Germanic and Celtic) sources to provide England with a national mythology that would express the English spirit as the Edda does for Scandinavia and the Kalevala does for Finland. As Tolkien put it:
 
“I had a mind to make a body of more or less connected legend, ranging from the large and cosmogonic to the level of romantic fairy-story—the larger founded on the lesser in contact with the earth, the lesser drawing splendor from the vast backcloths—which I could dedicate simply: to England; to my country. . . . I would draw some of the great tales in fullness, and leave many only placed in the scheme, and sketched. The cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and music and drama.”2
 
The death in World War I of most of his St. Edward’s friends apparently firmed Tolkien’s resolution, and after twenty years, he had elaborated several languages, a cosmology, and large parts of The Silmarillion, high heroic tales (written in verse and prose, English and Elvish) of the fall of the angelic Melkor and the futile struggles of men and elves against him.
 
As a diversion from these weighty labors, Tolkien composed stories and sketches for his own children. About 1930, one of these beginning with the idle sentence “In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit,” became more and more involved as Tolkien defined hobbits and created adventure for one particular hobbit. Gradually it became clear to Tolkien that Bilbo Baggins’s adventures took place in the same Middle-earth as his high heroic tales, but during a much later era. After six years of intermittent composition, The Hobbit was published as a children’s book to critical and popular acclaim. Immediately Tolkien began work on TheLord of the Rings, published in 1954–55 after years of painstaking revision. In many ways a reworking of the plot of The Hobbit, the length, intensity, and complex theses of the Rings trilogy make it the adult epic Tolkien desired to create. Although its reputation was slow to grow, the paperback publication of the trilogy in the mid-sixties established the enormous fame of Middle-earth and its creator.
 
There can be no question that the great popular success of Middle-earth is due to the labors and spirit of its creator. The creation of an accomplished storyteller, linguist, poet, and painter, Middle-earth’s depths and plausibility are unmatched in modern fantasy; its reworking of the common ground of Norse, Celtic, and Judeo-Christian tradition is based in Tolkien’s belief in the importance and perfectibility of man.
 
Although its most striking creatures are noble elves, evil goblins, proud dwarves, cunning dragons, wizards, Eagles, and demons, the most important race in Middle-earth is men, for whose creation and salvation Middle-earth is prepared. The men of Middle-earth, free to choose their own destinies, run the full gamut from demonic evil and goblin-like depravity to a purity and integrity equaling that of the noblest elves. The contrast between goblins and elves provides one of the most important measures of good and evil in Middle-earth. The Silmarillion tells that elves, the Elder Children of God, were created to guide men, the Younger Children, on the long journey to spiritual wisdom and love of God. Goblins, in contrast, are corrupted elves, bred in mockery of Morgoth, the Necromancer’s master, whose revolt against God brings evil to Middle-earth. Thus Bard’s ability to learn restraint from the Elven king is an important sign of his virtue, and Bilbo’s love of elves indicates
his spiritual grace.
 
Where the elves serve as a model for men’s aspirations, hobbits provide a touchstone. Their lives display a basic goodness, a conservative, pastoral simplicity. Close to Nature and free from personal ambition and greed, hobbits need no government and are generally anti-technology. Rarely corrupted, they never corrupt others. The hobbits’ Shire is a quiet backwater, removed both from the agonies and the high destiny of men, whether in Middle-earth or the twentieth century. The Shire is, for Tolkien, a mirror in which we can see reflected the simple peace at the center of our hearts.

__________________________________
1 Humphrey Carpenter, Tolkien: A Biography. (New York: Ballantine Books, 1978), p.124.
2 Carpenter, pp.100–101.


TEACHING IDEAS

Before you read

Ask students to generate a list of science fiction, fantasy, and paranormal works with which they are familiar. Allow them to include books, video games, movies, and television shows. Discuss the following questions as a class:

• Out of the three, do you have a favorite genre? Why do you think it appeals to you?

• How are works of fantasy similar to works of science fiction and the paranormal? What elements make the genre of fantasy unique?

• What kind of source materials do you think authors of fantasy might draw upon to create their imagined worlds?

• Over the past decade there has been an explosion in the popularity of nonrealistic genres. Why do you think fantasy has such a strong appeal for students of your generation?

Depending on the reading level of students, teachers may wish to assign Tolkien’s essay “On Fairy Stories.” (A link is provided in the “For Further Reading/Helpful Links” section at the end of this guide.) A critical essay summarizing Tolkien’s essay is included for your convenience:

Critical Essay: The Uses of Fantasy

Good fantasy offers the possibility of active, serious participation by the reader in an imagined world, which heightens one’s sense of Self and Other. This participation depends not only on the reader’s intentions but also on the moral plausibility of the fantasy world. The reward for this participation is a sense of wonder that enables the reader to return to the “real” world with enhanced understanding and appreciation—either of the world itself or of his relation to it.
 
In Tolkien’s view, expressed in his influential essay “On Fairy Stories” (written in 1939 as he was beginning The Lord of The Rings), fantasy has an important positive function. In this subtle and somewhat diffuse essay, Tolkien asserts that this can be an escape to a serious Secondary World (or “sub-creation”) as much as an escape from the Primary World of reality.
 
For a Secondary World to be serious, it must first arouse enchantment, or Secondary Belief. Where Coleridge’s “willing suspension of disbelief” is an exercise in which the critical intellect is made passive while the emotions are given free play, Secondary Belief is an active and integrative process by which the audience perceives the Secondary World to possess “the inner consistency of reality,” to be as true—on its own terms—as the Primary World. The Secondary World must be created for Art, not Magic—as a wonder in itself, not with the pretense of altering the Primary World or the reader’s status in it. Any type of wonder is acceptable, but Tolkien asserts that the act of serious sub-creation inevitably reflects the primary creation, so that even when its objects and inhabitants are marvelous, the values and aspirations of a Secondary World are familiar.
 
Thus, a fantasy world is inevitably a mirror of our own world, and Tolkien explains the nature of this mirror using four terms: Recovery, Escape, Consolation, and Eucatastrophe. The sense of wonder aroused by Secondary Belief is not a discovering of the exotic but a Recovery of the familiar, the “regaining of a clear view” of the objects of the Primary World freed from the taints of anxiety, triteness, and above all, possessiveness. In a Secondary World, our sense of wonder should extend not only to “the centaur and the dragon” but also “like the ancient shepherds,” to “sheep, and dogs, and horses—and wolves,”3 and on our return to the Primary World, we may retain some of that wonder and appreciation. At the same time as it offers an Escape to renewed significance, fantasy offers Escape from things worth fleeing: the petty evils of tawdriness and ugliness; the “grim and terrible” evils of “hunger, thirst, poverty, pain, sorrow, injustice, death”; and, on a more positive note, the “ancient limitations” on worthy desires such as “the desire to converse with other living things.”4 The fulfillment of these Escapes is one of the Consolations of the Happy Ending. In its best form, the happy ending is a Eucatastrophe, an unexpected turning of the plot, “sudden and miraculous . . . never to be counted on to recur.” Fantasy admits the possibility of failure, sorrow, and death, but “it denies (in the face of much evidence, if you will) universal final defeat… giving a fleeting glimpse of Joy beyond the walls of the world, poignant as grief.”5
 
A complementary view of fantasy is offered by the child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim in The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. Bettelheim accepts Tolkien’sview, and indeed, borrows much of his terminology. But where Tolkien as author stresses theart of sub-creation and the recovery of wonder, Bettelheim as therapist emphasizes the use offantasy to teach children about the Primary World and to encourage personal development.For Bettelheim, “the fairy-tale is future oriented and guides the child—in terms he canunderstand in both his conscious and his unconscious mind—to relinquish his infantiledependency wishes and achieve a more stratifying independent existence.”6 The wish-fulfillment element of fantasy both relieves anxiety and shows the child that personal successcan be obtained, although at a certain price. At the heart of this lesson is the fact that the heromust work for his success. Magic accessories and good advice may be given to him, but hemust use these aids actively and appropriately, and success often comes only after years ofobscure labor or initial failure. Thus, the development of the hero is less a matter of changethan of self-discovery.

_____________________________________
3 J. R. R. Tolkien, “On Fairy Stories,” in Tree and Leaf, reprinted in The Tolkien Reader.
(New York: Ballantine Books, 1966), p. 57.
4 Tolkien, pp. 57–58.
5 Tolkien, p. 68.
6 Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales.
(New York: Vintage Books, 1979), p.11.


DISCUSSION AND WRITING

Chapter One: “An Unexpected Party”
 
Summary

We are introduced to hobbits and to Bilbo Baggins, a stay-at-home, highly respectable hobbit with a secret desire for adventure. Bilbo receives a visit from Gandalf the wizard. The next Wednesday Gandalf returns for tea, bringing with him a party of thirteen dwarves led by Thorin Oakenshield. Despite misgivings on both sides, on Gandalf’s recommendation the dwarves hire Bilbo as Burglar on an expedition to the Lonely Mountain, where they plan to recover their ancestral treasure from the dragon Smaug.
 
Comprehension Questions

What is Gandalf’s reputation? How involved do you expect him to be during the adventure?

What kind of mark does Gandalf put on Bilbo’s door?

How many dwarves come to tea?

What does Thorin wear to distinguish himself from the other dwarves?

What two things does Gandalf give Thorin?

How did the dwarves lose their treasure and kingdom?
 
Vocabulary
 
audacious (p. 16)         legendary (p. 22)            remuneration (p. 22)

rune
(p. 20)                obstinately (p. 22)          necromancer (p. 26)

abreast
(p. 20)            prudent (p. 22)

Discussion and Essay Topics

What does the word hobbit make you think of? (Note: The possibilities include rabbit, hobby, Babbit, habit, and hob. The word is probably best seen as a blend of rabbit and hob, an obsolete British word meaning “a rustic, peasant” or “sprite, elf.”) How does Bilbo resemble a rabbit in this chapter? When you finish the book, ask yourself if he still reminds you of one.

What is an adventure? Is it something that happens, or is it the way we react to what happens? Can we live without adventures? What is “magic”? Is there any “magic” in this book? (Return to these questions as the book progresses.)
 
Explain all the meanings of good morning (pp. 4–5).
 
What about adventures awakens Bilbo’s Tookish side (pp. 15–16)? What causes his Baggins side to reemerge (pp. 16, 27)? Explain the difference between Bilbo’s Tookish side and his Baggins side. Can you relate to Bilbo’s feelings of ambivalence? Do you think everyone has similar “Tookish” and “Baggins” sides to their personalities?
 
Even this early in the book, we can see some of the characteristics of dwarves, wizards, and dragons. Begin generating a list of the characteristics—both physical and character traits—of each of the magical creatures in The Hobbit. After you finish the book, you’ll have an opportunity to compare Tolkien’s descriptions with similar magical beings in other works of literature.
 
Critical Commentary: Entering a Fantasy World

A fantasy novel must offer two things: an attractive fantasy world and a point of contact between the fantasy world and our own. What readers find attractive is a matter of personal taste, but they are likely to discard a fantasy as irrelevant unless they can find a common perspective from which to assess the attractiveness. In general, these common perspectives are established in one of three ways: the main character is transported from our world into the fantasy world (like Alice in Wonderland); the main character is a native of the fantasy world with whom the reader can easily identify; or the fantasy world is fundamentally like ours, differing only in specific details. American teenagers will not automatically identify with a fussy English country squire like Bilbo, so the success of The Hobbit depends on a tension between familiar and exotic things, which must be established in the first few pages.
 
The opening of the first sentence, “In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit,” introduces a strange creature and an apparently unattractive setting. But the next paragraphs belie this initial reaction. Hobbits love comfort in much the same way we do: they are fond of visitors, food, and clothing; they have families and relatives; some are richer than others—in short, they are very human. By the fourth paragraph hobbits seem normal, and other folk—dwarves, fairies, and Big People—are strange. From here on, adventures take place in a world beyond Bilbo’s doorstep, a world that seems as strange to him as it does to us. We share not only his sense of wonder, but also the values that make him love his home.
 
Chapter 2: “Roast Mutton”
 
Summary

Thorin and company set off on their expedition, and Bilbo joins them. Initially things go well, but on the first rainy night they seek shelter and blunder into three trolls. Bilbo and the dwarves are captured by the trolls, but Gandalf outwits them and they turn to stone at daybreak. The expedition plunders the trolls’ hoard. Gandalf and Thorin take swords, Bilbo takes a small knife, and they bury the trolls’ gold.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
What are the terms of Bilbo’s contract? Do you think they are fair terms?
 
How does Bilbo know that the three people are trolls? Can you think of any other stories (especially children’s stories and fairy tales) you know about trolls? How are Tolkien’s trolls similar to trolls in other stories? How are they different? Add trolls to the list of magical creatures that you started after the first chapter.

How is Bilbo caught? What lesson do you think he should learn as a result of his capture?
 
How does Gandalf rescue Bilbo and the dwarves?
 
What do they take from the trolls’ hoard?
 
Vocabulary
 
esteemed (p. 29)         paraphernalia (p. 30)        applicable (p. 37)

Discussion and Essay Topics

Begin paying close attention to the way that Tolkien uses the presence and absence of the character of Gandalf to develop both the plot and the character of Bilbo Baggins. Why is it important that Gandalf is not present when the expedition meets the trolls?

Myths, legends, and folktales often reflect the values of a given culture. At this point in the story, what can you infer about the character traits that Tolkien considers positive? What character traits are viewed in a negative light? What is more important at this point: intelligence or physical strength?
 
Critical Commentary: Quests and the Development of the Hero
 
The Hobbit follows the typical pattern of the quest in many ways. Like most quest heroes, Bilbo begins the story ignorant and untried, and he undergoes a series of preliminary adventures, which help him in two ways. First, they give him the opportunity to learn about the world and the extent and proper use of his own powers. Second, they bring him the friends and talismans that he will need to prevail in his greatest adventure: the culmination of his quest.
 
Because in a well-constructed quest story the development of wisdom and self-restraint is equally as important as the growth of physical prowess, the quest story (as Bettelheim points out in The Uses of Enchantment) is often concerned with maturation, and the lessons it teaches are those of adulthood. The specific moral of an individual quest story can usually be found by examining two areas: the hero’s motivation for acting, and the final reward he achieves. The most obvious indication of a hero’s development—the skills he acquires—can be misleading, for most quest stories are concerned more with virtue (which can be defined as the proper application of whatever skills or powers are available) than with the skills themselves. Bilbo, for example, never becomes a “hero” in the conventional sense. In part this is because he accepts the fact that he is too small to become a warrior, but more importantly it is because he deplores violence and lacks ambition for power.
 
While the ending of The Hobbit—in which Bilbo finds that each assumed culminating adventure in fact leads to further complications—is a variation on the typical quest pattern, Bilbo’s journey to Erebor is a skillful realization of this pattern. Throughout the story, the best way to evaluate Bilbo’s development is by comparing him to the dwarves. At this point (Chapter 2), Bilbo’s only skill is his stealth. He is as easily disheartened by rain and discomfort as the dwarves, and his attempt to steal the troll’s purse, like his original decision to come on the expedition, is motivated by an irrational pride. Still, as a reward for surviving the adventure and finding the trolls’ key, Bilbo receives the first of two talismans: his short sword. Gandalf’s role in all this is crucial. As Bilbo’s mentor, he reserves his power for situations that Bilbo cannot yet—or ever—deal with. Rescue by Gandalf is therefore a sign of Bilbo’s lack of skill or knowledge. Bilbo’s conduct during later adventures, when Gandalf is not present, will show how much he has progressed. 
 
Chapter 3: “A Short Rest”
 
Summary
 
The expedition comes to Rivendell, where Elrond and his elves live in the Last Homely House. Elrond explains Thrór’s Map to the dwarves and identifies Gandalf’s and Thorin’s swords as the famous blades Orcrist and Glamdring, made by elves for the ancient goblin wars.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
Why is Rivendell hard to find?
 
Read pages 46–48. Based on the imagery that Tolkien uses to describe the forest, what sort of creatures do you think live there?
 
Who are the enemies of the elves?
 
What important discovery does Elrond make regarding Thorin’s map? What does it suggest about Thorin that he owns the map for years and never notices what Elrond notices right away?
 
When is Durin’s Day? What is significant about this day as it relates to Bilbo’s quest?

Bilbo notices that it “smells like elves” when they are near the Last Homely House. Based on Bilbo’s experience with Elrond and the other elves, what do you think elves might smell like?

Vocabulary
 
drear (p. 45)                     faggot (p. 48)                 palpitating (p. 51)
 
glade (p. 48)                     bannock (p. 48)                   cleave (p. 52)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
What is the difference between the ways Bilbo and the dwarves react to Rivendell? How does Elrond feel about the expedition, and what does he say about the dwarves’ love of gold and the wickedness of dragons? What values are important to the elves?
 
Elrond plays a significant role in the Lord of the Rings trilogy. How does the way that Tolkien introduces him help set up his importance in later stories? How does this sort of backstory contribute to Tolkien’s world building?
 
Research the tradition of naming weapons in classical myths and legends. Why might it be significant for Tolkien to have given the elves named swords? What message do you think is conveyed by the names given to the swords?
 
Chapter 4: “Over Hill and Under Hill”
 
Summary
 
As they cross the Misty Mountains, a storm drives the expedition into a cave, where they are attacked by goblins. Bilbo and the dwarves are captured and driven into the goblins’ underground halls. There Gandalf rescues them and slays the Great Goblin, but as they flee from the goblins, Bilbo is knocked unconscious.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
Why does the expedition take shelter in the cave?
 
Why isn’t Gandalf captured?
    
What do goblins usually do with their prisoners?
 
How does Gandalf rescue Bilbo and the dwarves?
 
Vocabulary
 
deception (p. 55)             quaff (p. 61)           inconveniencing (p. 63)
 
shirk (p. 61)                   ingenious (p. 62)      gnash (p. 63)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
What does Tolkien tell us about goblins? Why do you think he does not give specific details about their appearance? Discuss what you think goblins look like, and explain which details in the book give you that idea.
 
Discuss the role that music plays in the development of the different magical beings. Compare the songs sung by the dwarves (pp. 14–15), the elves (pp. 48–49), and the goblins (pp. 60–61). How do the songs differ in tone, content, and structure? What do the tone, content, and structure of their songs reveal about the creatures that sing them?
 
Consider the following quote: “It is not unlikely that they [goblins] invented some of the machines that have since troubled the world, especially the ingenious devices for killing large numbers of people at once” (p. 62). Can you take this statement seriously? What is Tolkien suggesting by linking his fantasy world to the reader’s modern world? What commentary is he making about the use of military technology?
 
Chapter 5: “Riddles in the Dark”
 
Summary
 
Lost and alone in the Misty Mountains, Bilbo gathers his courage. He finds a ring and puts it in his pocket. Then he encounters Gollum, a loathsome but pathetic creature. They play a riddle-game to determine if Gollum will show Bilbo the way out or eat him instead. Bilbo wins the contest, but Gollum then realizes that Bilbo has his ring, which confers invisibility. Bilbo follows Gollum to the surface and evades the goblins guarding the gate.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
How does Bilbo know his sword was made by elves?
 
Why is it good that Bilbo lost his matches?
 
How does Gollum guess that Bilbo has his ring?
 
How do the goblins know that someone is at the gate?
 
Which of the dwarves is the most surprised to see Bilbo?
 
Vocabulary
 
subterranean (p. 70)           flummoxed (p. 72)           antiquity (p. 80)
 
unbeknown (p. 71)             chestnut (p. 74)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
How are Bilbo and Gollum alike? Can you call Gollum evil? Discuss the concept that Gollum is the negative side of Bilbo, with which Bilbo must come to terms before he can achieve his identity. (Suggestion: To bring home the concept of the negative side, compare this chapter and Luke Skywalker’s descent into the cave during his training by Yoda, in The Empire Strikes Back.)
 
What effect did the ring seem to have on Gollum? How did the loss of the ring affect him? (Note: Because of the enormous popularity of Peter Jackson’s films, students may be familiar with the role of the ring in The Lord of the Rings. If so, you may choose to discuss how the events of this chapter foreshadow the role the ring eventually plays.)
 
What skills does Bilbo show in dealing with Gollum?
 
“No great leap for a man, but a leap in the dark” (p. 39). Is “a leap in the dark” actually a “great leap”? Explain your answer. Discuss this quotation with respect to Bilbo’s decision not to kill Gollum, and his newfound courage.
 
Should Gollum be considered a sympathetic character? Defend your answer.
 
Critical Commentary:
Plot Structure, Repetition of Motifs, and the Development of the Hero
 
Chapter 5, in which Bilbo successfully crosses the Misty Mountains by his own efforts, marks the turning point in his development. Up to now he’s been little more than baggage, as the dwarves often point out; his only accomplishments—finding the key to the trolls’ caves and warning Gandalf of the goblin attack—are useful but trivial.
 
The first three pages of Chapter 5 detail Bilbo’s transformation. First, he finds the ring, his second and greatest talisman. Slowly he shakes off his initial self-pity and despair, regains his common sense (which includes realizing that his customary means of self-comfort, such as smoking, are inappropriate for this situation), and finally is comforted by the presence of his first talisman, the elvish sword. Facing up to his plight, his final decision—if you can’t go back or sideways, then go forward—is typical of the determination and essential optimism that constitute hobbit courage. Tolkien’s catalog of Bilbo’s skills stresses a hobbit’s innate abilities—familiarity with tunnels, good sense of direction, stealth, toughness, and “a fund of wisdom and wise sayings”—with the implication that Bilbo has developed to the point where he can use these skills effectively.

The extent of Bilbo’s growth is marked by the repetition of motifs between Bilbo’s adventures west (Chapters 2 to 5) and east (Chapters 6 to 9) of the Misty Mountains. The dominant event or setting of each chapter is parallel (attack by enemies; hospitality at an important male’s house; attack by enemies; underground capture and escape) and in every case we see Bilbo acting with confidence and effectiveness east of the mountains, but ineptly west of the mountains. In Chapter 2, Bilbo is captured while sneaking around the trolls’ campfire and is easily rescued by Gandalf; in Chapter 6, he sneaks into the dwarves’ camp undetected and is later rescued from a situation in which even Gandalf is helpless. In Chapter 3, Bilbo relies heavily on Gandalf’s advice; in Chapter 7, he behaves prudently and Gandalf names him head of the expedition. In Chapter 4, Bilbo is as imprudent as the dwarves and once more must be rescued by Gandalf and protected by the swords Beater and Biter; in Chapter 8, he is never captured, rescues the dwarves single-handedly, and names his own sword Sting. Finally, Bilbo’s ability in Chapter 5 to win the riddle-contest and rescue himself foreshadows his ability in Chapter 9 to outwit a palace full of elves and execute a complex escape plan involving the entire expedition.
 
The third part of the book, the adventures at the Lonely Mountain, repeats many of these motifs, but in a less schematic fashion, as befits the growing complexity of Bilbo’s adventure. For example, Bilbo’s first trip down the tunnel recalls his actions in the tunnels of the goblins and the Elvenking. Gandalf’s outwitting of the trolls and Bilbo’s riddle-game with Gollum prepare Bilbo to confront Smaug. His decision to go down the tunnel the third time (p. 223) recalls his determination to go forward in the goblin tunnels (p. 77). These varied experiences prepare Bilbo to deal with increasingly complex moral issues. West of the mountains, Bilbo encounters beings that are purely good (Elrond) or purely evil (goblins and trolls). East of the mountains, the characters are more complicated: Beorn is good but brutish, and the Elvenking is good but overly harsh. Finally, at the Lonely Mountain Bilbo must deal with Smaug’s attractive malice, Thorn’s intractable greed and pride, and Bard’s grim integrity.
 
The larger plot structure of The Hobbit is, much like traditional fantasy, cyclical. As the subtitle There and Back Again suggests, the most common structure for a developmental fantasy is for the hero to begin at home, develop skills during the course of a journey, fulfill his quest, and return home with his understanding increased by his adventures. The Hobbit begins and ends in Bilbo’s home with a conversation between Bilbo and Gandalf, and the contrast between these two scenes displays Bilbo’s development.
 
Chapter 6: “Out of the Frying-Pan into the Fire”
 
Summary
 
Bilbo finds that he is on the east side of the mountains. Using his ring, he enters the dwarves’ camp undetected. Bilbo and his group flee down the mountainside but are overtaken at night by goblins and Wargs and trapped in five fir trees in a clearing. The goblins set fire to the trees, but the Eagles of the Misty Mountains rescue the expedition, although as usual Bilbo is almost left behind.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
How does Bilbo know he is on the east side of the Misty Mountains?
    
What is the proverb that Bilbo invents? Try to create a modern proverb with a similar meaning.
 
Why does the Lord of the Eagles notice the expedition?
 
Why won’t the Eagles fly near where men live? What do you think Tolkien is suggesting about mankind’s place in his imagined world? Are men the wisest, noblest, or most powerful beings? If not, who is?

Vocabulary
 
sorrel (p. 97)                        bracken (p. 98)               proverb (p. 99)
 
marjoram (p. 97)                   larch (p. 100)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics

Do you think Bilbo would try to rescue the dwarves if they were still inside the mountains? Explain what might motivate his actions. Would they try to rescue him? What does this suggest about the character traits of dwarves?
 
Why doesn’t Bilbo tell the dwarves about his ring? Do you consider this lying? What would you have done in the same situation? What do you think might have happened if he had told them about the ring?
 
At this point in the story, how much of an asset does Gandalf seem to be? Do his actions seem consistent with the way you think wizards operate? Why doesn’t Gandalf do more to “save the day”? Are his powers limited, or is he intentionally refraining from using them? Defend your answer.
 
Chapter 7: “Queer Lodgings”
 
Summary
 
The Eagles carry the expedition to the Carrock, a rock in the middle of the Great River. From there the expedition heads to the house of Beorn, a skin-changer fierce toward his enemies but gentle with animals. Gandalf wins Beorn’s hospitality by introducing the dwarves in small groups while he tells the story of their adventures. After two nights at Beorn’s house, the expedition receives his advice and departs for Mirkwood. At the forest-gate, Gandalf leaves the expedition.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
What is a skin-changer?
    
What does Beorn eat (p. 116)? Why do you think he chooses to eat this way? What does it suggest about his inherent character traits?
 
How does Gandalf get Beorn to shelter thirteen dwarves?
 
What eventually interests Beorn about the dwarves’ tales? What group(s) of creatures does Beorn seem to dislike?
 
What is the most important advice that Beorn and Gandalf give about Mirkwood? Do you think this advice will be followed? Defend your answer.
 
Vocabulary
 
carrock (p. 115)                  dale (p. 117)                  withered (p. 126)
 
appalling (p. 115)                trestle (p. 125)               stark (p. 127)
       
tippet (p. 116)                    mead (p. 126)                 hart (p. 135)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
Compare the expedition’s arrival at Beorn’s house with the Unexpected Party of the first chapter. Note that now Bilbo is in on Gandalf’s plot. While both hosts have to be cajoled into accepting the arrival of the travelling party, it is for very different reasons. What are they?
 
Discuss Beorn’s character. What are his virtues? Why is he suspicious of strangers? What about him seems vicious? In what ways is he gentle? How does Bilbo come to understand him?
 
Compare the descriptions of Beorn and his house with various classic versions of the story of
Beauty and the Beast. How is Beorn similar to this archetype? How is he different?
 
Why is it necessary to the story that Gandalf leave the expedition?

Chapter 8: “Flies and Spider”
 
Summary
 
Mirkwood is dark and unpleasant. The expedition runs low on food, water, and hope. Bombur falls into the enchanted stream and sleeps for four days. When Balin sees firelight off the path, the dwarves and Bilbo go toward it. They are scattered when they interrupt the elven feast. Giant spiders capture the dwarves. Bilbo rescues them and slays many spiders, but Thorin is captured by the Wood-elves.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
What do the dwarves shoot with their bows?
 
When Bilbo climbs the tree, why doesn’t he see an end to the forest?
       
What does Bombur dream of?
 
What does Bilbo name his sword? What does his decision to name his sword reveal about the heroic qualities he is developing?

How does Bilbo rescue the dwarves? What skills does he use to defeat the spiders?
 
Vocabulary
 
inquisitive (p. 140)           disquieting (p. 147)          warrant (p. 157)
 
hind (p. 146)                   commons (p. 150)           quoits (p. 158)

vexed (p. 146)                 sawn (p. 152)                 gloaming (p. 168)
   
accursed (p. 148)             loathsome (p. 157)           thongs (p. 169)
    
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
What are the unattractive features of Mirkwood? Do you think the forest is evil? Explain your answer.
 
Discuss the enchanted stream. Does it remind you of objects in other myths, legends, or folktales? Why are they to be avoided? Why do characters tend to fall victim to the objects in spite of being warned against them? What symbolic purpose do you think these sorts of enchanted objects might serve?
 
After Gandalf leaves, who becomes the leader of the expedition? Who do you think should have become the leader? Defend your answer.
 
What makes the expedition lose hope? Why is their despair unjustified?
 
What heroic acts does Bilbo perform?
 
Why does Bilbo tell the dwarves about his magic ring? What does his reluctance to do so tell us?
 
Discuss the ancient feud between dwarves and elves. Whose fault is it? If neither side is in the right, how can you tell the difference between good and evil? Why do you think Tolkien creates this sort of ambiguity? What does it reveal about the author’s purpose?
 
Chapter 9: “Barrels Out of Bond”
 
Summary
 
Lost in Mirkwood, the dwarves are captured by the Wood-elves and imprisoned because they will not explain their mission. Bilbo, invisible, follows them into the underground palace of the Elvenking. He finds Thorin and later discovers the water-gate, the palace’s delivery entrance. When the chief guard becomes drunk, Bilbo steals his keys, releases the dwarves, and hides the dwarves in empty barrels. The barrels are thrown into the river to float to Lake-town; Bilbo rides atop one barrel.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
Why, where, and how are the dwarves imprisoned? Why wasn’t Bilbo imprisoned as well?
 
How does Bilbo get in and out of the palace?
 
How many entrances does the palace have?
 
Where is the elves’ wine made?
 
Vocabulary
 
portcullis (p. 171)                potent (p. 173)           toss-pot (p. 177)
    
flagon (p. 173)                    vintage (p. 173)         kine (p. 178)
          
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
Why does the Elvenking imprison the dwarves? Why won’t Thorin tell the Elvenking what his mission is? What characteristics does his refusal reveal about him? Do you think these characteristics are true for all dwarves, or are they just true for Thorin?
 
Is Bilbo a burglar now? Throughout the book, does he have any ethical dilemmas about stealing? How is the connotation or the word burglar different from the connotation of thief? Is Bilbo’s type of burglary different from stealing? Explain your answer.
 
The escape plan is completely Bilbo’s. How good is it? Can you think of an alternate plan? How much does it depend on luck? Does he deserve this luck?
 
At this point in the book do you think the dwarves have treated Bilbo fairly? Why do you think Bilbo is loyal to them? What does his loyalty reveal about his character?
 
Chapter 10: “A Warm Welcome”
 
Summary
 
Wet and bedraggled, the expedition arrives at Lake-town, a trading town of men. They are welcomed by the Master, and the townspeople recall prophecies of the downfall of the dragon and the consequent enrichment of the town. After two weeks of rest the expedition departs for the Lonely Mountain.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
What are the connotations of the word master? What does the fact that the town’s leader is called “Master” rather than ”King” or “Mayor” or ”Governor” suggest about the way he rules?
 
Why does the Master welcome the expedition?
 
What is the history of the relationship between the dwarves and the men?
 
Why are the dwarves happy? Why is Bilbo unhappy?
 
What does the Elvenking think will happen to the dwarves?
 
What is the Master’s reaction when Thorin announces his departure?
 
Vocabulary

ominous (p. 190)                gammer (p. 194)            enmity (p. 197)
 
promontory (p. 191)            vagabond (p. 196)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
“Some sang too that Thrór and Thráin would come back one day and gold would flow in rivers through mountain gates, and all that land would be filled with new song and new laughter. But this pleasant legend did not much affect their daily business” (p. 192). Discuss the history of Lake-town and the beliefs of its inhabitants. What does it mean that they do not take their legends seriously?

Compare the attitudes of the men of Lake-town, the Master, and the Elvenking to Thorin’s mission. Who is reasonable? Who is silly? Then consider Bilbo’s attitude. Keeping in mind that elves are renowned for wisdom, how wise is Bilbo?
 
Does Thorin seem to be changing as he gets closer and closer to the mountain? How?
 
Chapter 11: “On the Doorstep”
 
Summary
 
The expedition finds the Side-door but cannot open it, and they all become gloomy. One evening Bilbo hears a thrush cracking snails and realizes that this is the sign that the door will open. He calls the dwarves, and Thorin opens the door with his key.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
Why won’t the men of Lake-town stay with the dwarves?
 
Where does the expedition make each of their three camps?
 
What causes the door to appear? Should the dwarves have predicted this event?
 
Why didn’t they?
 
Vocabulary
 
disembarked (p. 202)             waning (p. 203)                lintel (p. 206)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
Create a detailed map (or model) of the Lonely Mountain. Mark the
appearance, vegetation, etc., of each area and the events that occur there.
 
In what way does Bilbo show that he has more spirit left than the dwarves?
 
Chapter 12: “Inside Information”
 
Summary
 
Bilbo enters the Side-door and, overcoming his fear, goes down a tunnel to Smaug’s lair. Overwhelmed by the splendor of the dragon-hoard, he steals a large cup and escapes. The theft arouses Smaug, who goes through the Front Gate, attacks the expedition on the mountainside, and drives them into the tunnel. Bilbo volunteers to explore the lair again. This time he has a perilous conversation with Smaug, during which he sees an unarmored patch on the dragon’s breast. Smaug later attacks their camp, but thanks to Bilbo’s forewarning the dwarves are safe, although trapped, inside the tunnel.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
Who goes partway down the tunnel with Bilbo?
 
What does Bilbo take from the hoard?
 
Bilbo quotes two of his father’s sayings. What are they?
 
Who is the real leader of the expedition?
 
What about Bilbo puzzles Smaug?
 
What is the most important thing Bilbo learns from Smaug?
 
What proverb does Bilbo invent?
 
What is the Arkenstone?
 
Vocabulary
 
smouldering (p. 220)       impenetrable (p. 226)       stealth (p. 232)
 
grievous (p. 224)            waistcoat (p. 226)
 
cartage (p. 225)              foreboding (p. 229)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics

“Some [dwarves] are decent enough people like Thorin and Company, if you don’t expect too much” (p. 213). What can Bilbo expect from the dwarves? What shouldn’t he expect?
 
“Going on from there was the bravest thing he ever did . . . he fought the real battle in the tunnel alone, before he ever saw the vast danger that lay in wait” (p. 215). According to this passage, what is true courage? What abilities and character traits has Bilbo demonstrated so far? How do his earlier adventures prepare him for his confrontation with Smaug? Can you relate this quote to your own life?
 
Is it wise to steal the cup? Why does Bilbo do it?
 
Describe the characteristics of dragons. (Note: Begin with terms such as greedy, wily, hostile, and riddle-loving, and build to more severe terms such as vengeful, treacherous, fond of flattery, and breeders of distrust and dissension.) What is the dragon-spell? Whyare dwarves so susceptible to it? (Note: In The Hobbit the traditional motif of the curseddragon-hoard is reimagined as the idea that the curse is not so much inherent to theobjects, but rather treasure brings out the evil and foolish side of dwarves, elves, andmen.) In this and the following chapters, trace the changing effects of the treasure on thedwarves and on Bilbo.
 
Explain the names that Bilbo gives himself when speaking with Smaug: “I come from under the hill . . . am the clue finder, the web-cutter, the stinging fly. I was chosen for the lucky number,” etc. (p. 223). How does each name relate to the story of his adventure?
 
The use of epithets is a characteristic of epic poetry. Explain what Tolkien may be trying to convey by Bilbo’s use of epithets to “name” himself. In what other ways does Bilbo remind you of Odysseus in Homer’s The Odyssey?
 
Examine the possible etymology of the name “Arkenstone.” What associations and connotations do you think Tolkien intended when he named the stone?
 
Chapter 13: “Not at Home”
 
Summary
 
Encouraged by Bilbo, the dwarves go down into the hall and find Smaug gone. Bilbo finds and hides the Arkenstone. The dwarves celebrate their recovery of the treasure. Bilbo reminds them that Smaug is still a peril, and they move to a watchtower on a spur of the mountain.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
What does Thorin give Bilbo?
 
Which hall leads to the Front Gate?
 
Why do the dwarves leave the underground halls?
 
Vocabulary
 
pallid (p. 237)                            perpetually (p. 245)
 
figured (p. 240)                          dominion (p. 245)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
“Anyway the only way out is down” (p. 235). What earlier statement by Bilbo does this echo? When does Bilbo’s courage assert itself most?
 
Why does Bilbo keep the Arkenstone? How does he justify his decision to withhold its discovery from Thorin? Do you agree that Bilbo has a right to the stone? What does the fact that Bilbo is willing to give up gold and jewels to have it suggest about the worth of the Arkenstone? Can you think of any traditional myths or parables about similar objects that Tolkien may be alluding to? What might be the symbolic importance of the stone?
 
Chapter 14: “Fire and Water”
 
Summary
 
Smaug flies to avenge himself on the men of Lake-town. He is destroying the town when the thrush tells Bard the Bowman, a descendant of the former Lords of Dale, about the bare, vulnerable spot on Smaug’s breast. Bard slays Smaug and directs his people’s efforts to feed and shelter themselves, although he plans eventually to seize Smaug’s hoard. When the Elvenking hears of Smaug’s death, he sets out to seize the hoard himself, but goes instead to Lake-town when he hears of its distress. Eleven days after Smaug’s death, a combined army of men and elves marches on the Lonely Mountain.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
Why does Smaug decide to destroy Lake-town? Whose “fault” is it that he decides to seek revenge on the Lake-men?
 
Who is the guard “with a grim voice” (p. 247)?
 
Why do the men of Esgaroth destroy the bridges?
 
Why can Bard understand the thrush (see pp. 250–51)?
 
Why are the people of Esgaroth angry with Thorin? Do you think they have a right to be angry? Do you think Thorin owes them anything?
 
Vocabulary
 
drear (p. 247)            laden (p. 249)              eminent (p. 253)
 
foiled (p. 248)           prophesying (p. 250)       benefactor (p. 253)
 
quench (p. 249)         gledes (p. 251)            recompense (pp. 253–54)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics

Characterize Bard and the Master. Who speaks more convincingly? What does their appearance suggest about them? Explain the reason for Bard’s pessimism. Who has more courage? Who displays more leadership? Do you believe that some people are natural leaders? Can this ability be inherited?
 
Explain the significance of Bard’s name. What could Tolkien be alluding to? What is Tolkien showing he values by naming such a noble and heroic character “Bard”?
 
Why does the Elvenking set out from his halls? Why does he go to Esgaroth? What does this tell you about the value he places on treasure?
 
Chapter 15: “The Gathering of the Clouds”
 
Summary
 
Summoned by the thrush, Roac, a raven of an ancient family friendly to the dwarves, tells the dwarves of the death of Smaug and the gathering of men and elves. Roac advises Thorin to deal with Bard, but Thorin sends for aid from his cousin Dain and fortifies the Front Gate. Thorin denies that Bard has a right to any of the treasure, and Bard declares the mountain besieged. Bilbo is sick of the whole business.

Comprehension Questions
 
How did Ravenhill get its name?
 
How old is Roac?
 
When does Thorin first name himself King under the Mountain?
 
Vocabulary
 
carrion (p. 257)              decrepit (p. 258)                      fells (p. 263)
 
coveted (p. 258)             amends (p. 259)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
From the very beginning, Bilbo has assumed that the climax of the adventure would be the recovery of the treasure. Then he realizes that Smaug must also be dealt with. Now he finds that even Smaug’s death does not end the adventure. If Bilbo had known from the beginning what would happen, do you think he would have still agreed to the adventure? Have the complications made him more or less enthusiastic and confident? What do you think Tolkien is trying to say about the purpose of trials and tribulations in a person’s life?
 
Why won’t Thorin deal with Bard and the Elvenking? Evaluate Bard’s three topics for discussion (p. 265) and Thorin’s answer. Do you think Bard’s requests are fair and just? Is Thorin’s answer fair and just?
 
How has the treasure changed Thorin?
 
Chapter 16: “A Thief in the Night”
 
Summary
 
Despite Roac’s counsel, Thorin prepares for war. To break the impasse, Bilbo gives the Arkenstone to Bard and the Elvenking. He meets Gandalf in their camp. Bilbo returns to the mountain despite the Elvenking’s warning about Thorin’s anger.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
How does Bilbo leave the mountain without being caught?
 
What is Bilbo’s plan to avoid war? Is it a good plan?
 
What old friend does Bilbo meet in the camp?
 
Vocabulary
 
bade (p. 268)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
Why does Thorin reject Roac’s advice?
 
Just as the moment in the tunnel (p. 215) is Bilbo’s bravest, giving up the Arkenstone is his noblest. Why does he do it? Would any other character in the story be capable of this? What does it say about Bilbo’s values and ethics? Why does he return to the Mountain? Would you have returned to the dwarves or stayed with Bard and the elves?
 
Chapter 17: “The Clouds Burst”
 
Summary
 
Thorin promises to give to Bard Bilbo’s share of the treasure in exchange for the Arkenstone. Dain’s army arrives before the exchange is made, and Bard refuses to let it pass into the Lonely Mountain. The two sides are about to battle when a vast army of goblins and Wargs attacks both. Dwarves, elves, and men unite in the face of their common enemy, and the Battle of Five Armies begins. At first the good forces trap the goblins and Wargs between two shoulders of the mountain, but they in turn are attacked from above by goblins climbing over the mountain. Thorin sallies forth from the Front Gate and rallies his side, but the bodyguard of Bolg, the goblin leader, blocks his advance and Thorin is surrounded. Bilbo does not fight, but stays, invisible, near the Elvenking. He mourns the coming defeat and death of his friends, but then he sees that the Eagles are coming. At that moment he is knocked unconscious by a stone.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
What terms do Thorin and Bard come to?
 
What army makes the first attack?
 
Name the armies in the Battle of Five Armies.
 
What stops Thorin’s advance?
 
Where does Bilbo take his final stand? Why?
 
Vocabulary
 
hauberk (p. 278)                    precipice (p. 284)            smote (p. 287)
 
mattocks (p. 279)                  scimitar (p. 284)
    
reconciliation (p. 280)             eyries (p. 287)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
Consider the Elvenking’s statement: “Long will I tarry, ere I begin this war for gold.” Do youthink these are wise words? Is gold worth fighting over? Defend your answer.
 
Trace Thorin’s moral degeneration. What causes him to change? In what ways does he end up being similar to Smaug? Why do you think he is so easily corrupted?
 
Before the arrival of the goblins and wargs, who are the “good guys” and who are the “bad guys” in the standoff around the mountain? How does your opinion change when the goblins arrive?
 
Which would be a greater tragedy: the killing of the armies of men, elves, and dwarves by the goblins, or a war between men, elves, and dwarves? Explain your answer.
 
Chapter 18: “The Return Journey”
 
Summary
 
Bilbo comes to his senses the next day and is brought to the camp. On his deathbed, Thorin makes amends with Bilbo. The outcome of the battle is retold: Beorn rescued the wounded Thorin and then killed Bolg, but the battle was not won until the Eagles cleared the mountainside of goblins. Dain, the new King under the Mountain, makes a generous settlement with Bard. Bilbo and Gandalf begin the return journey and part, in turn, from the dwarves, the Elvenking, and Beorn.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
Why isn’t Bilbo found until the day after the battle?
 
Who turned the tide of the battle?
 
What gifts does Dain give?
    
What becomes of Beorn in later years?
 
Vocabulary
 
literally (p. 288)             mustering (p. 291)
 
amend (p. 290)              trackless (p. 292)
 
Discussion and Essay Topics
 
“There is more in you of good than you know, child of the kindly West. Some courage . . . and some wisdom, blended in measure. If more of us valued food and cheer and song above hoarded gold, it would be a merrier world” (p. 290). Discuss Bilbo’s character now that his adventure is completed. Why does he refuse the treasure? Why is he weary of his adventure? How has he proven himself to be a hero in spite of his lack of traditionally “heroic” attributes like strength and assertiveness?
 
Examine the final views we get of Thorin on his deathbed and in his tomb. Is his quest fulfilled? Why is his death necessary? What lesson does he learn? Does he deserve our respect or admiration? Is it right to bury him with the Arkenstone?
 
Examine in detail the various demands and offers made by Bard and the dwarves (and the elves). How does the final solution match what each party wants and deserves? What is the difference between Dain’s gift and Thorin’s promises?
 
Chapter 19: “The Last Stage”
 
Summary
 
Bilbo and Gandalf arrive at Rivendell, where Gandalf confers with Elrond. Bilbo takes the treasure from the troll hoard. Finally Bilbo returns home just in time to save his hole and belongings from being auctioned off. He settles down contentedly, although he finds that he is no longer considered respectable. In an epilogue, Balin and Gandalf visit him several years later.
 
Comprehension Questions
 
Where was Gandalf while the expedition crossed Mirkwood?
 
How long do Bilbo and Gandalf stay at Rivendell?
 
Why do they walk at the end of their journey?
 
Why are Bilbo’s goods being auctioned?
 
What changes does Balin notice in Bilbo?
 
What happened to the old Master of Lake-town?
 
Vocabulary
 
lore (p. 299)                               effects (p. 303)
 
Discussion and Essay Topic
 
Look at the elves’ last songs (pp. 297–98, 299–300). What can you infer about the character traits and values of elves from their song?
 
“‘My dear Bilbo!’ [Gandalf] said, ‘Something is the matter with you! You are not the hobbit that you were'” (p. 302). What does Bilbo gain from his adventure? (Don’t forget to include the ability and desire to make poetry.) What is the difference in the way his home is dear to him now compared to the way it was dear to him at the beginning of the book? Is it necessary to leave a place before you can truly appreciate it? Can you relate Bilbo’s experience to your own life in any way?
 
At the end of the book, Gandalf makes the following comment: “You don’t really suppose, do you, that all your adventures and escapes were managed by mere luck, just for your sole benefit?” (p. 305). Do you agree with Bilbo or with Gandalf? If “mere luck” is not responsible for Bilbo’s success, what is?
 
Bilbo is pleased that he is “only quite a little fellow in a wide world after all!” (p. 305). Why is this a comforting perspective? How does viewing oneself as a small part of a larger whole impact the way a person interacts with the world around him?

Why didn’t Tolkien just end the book after the battle? What is the purpose of devoting two chapters to Bilbo’s return? How do these chapters help develop the character and/or important themes?
 
Critical Commentary: Bilbo’s Luck
 
Bilbo is originally chosen as the “lucky number,” so that Thorin and Company will not be an unlucky thirteen. During the course of the expedition, Gandalf remarks several times that Bilbo is extraordinarily lucky. Some of his luck seems to be the deserved reward for Bilbo’s courage and determination. For example, after attempting to find his own way out of the goblins’ tunnel, confronting Gollum, and evading the orc-guard, Bilbo certainly deserves to come out on the east side of the mountains. Similarly, after escaping from the spiders, the expedition needs the luck of being captured by the elves, especially since it turns out that their straying from the path was necessary, because the east end of the road was abandoned. Other lucky events, notably Bilbo’s finding of the troll’s key and the ring, are necessary to
give Bilbo talismans that enable him to confront enemies who are larger, more powerful, and more numerous than himself. In general, then, Bilbo’s luck should be seen as a plot device that reinforces the theme of Bilbo’s growing self-awareness and self-confidence.
 
However, some of the fortunate events in The Hobbit seem to involve much more than one hobbit’s personal luck. Four events in particular should be considered. First is the expedition’s rescue from the burning fir trees by the Eagles at a point when even Gandalf expects to die. Second is the expedition’s arrival at the Side-door in one of the very few years when Durin’s Day occurs. Third, although Bilbo deserves the credit for discovering Smaug’s bare spot, the combination of the bare spot itself, the talking thrush, and a heroic descendant of Girion of Dale extends far beyond Bilbo’s own luck. Finally, after Bilbo’s attempt at mediation fails and Dain attacks Bard and the Elvenking, only the extraordinary event of the goblin attack restores moral harmony.
 
Where Bilbo’s personal luck is related to the uses of the fantasy presented by Bettelheim, the larger luck that surrounds him can best be explained, in Tolkien’s term, as a series of eucatastrophes that illustrate the workings of Providence. Gandalf’s final comments about prophecies and luck, ending with his comment that Bilbo is “only quite a little fellow in a wide world after all” (p. 305), are the closest Tolkien comes to disclosing this providential structure in The Hobbit. Bilbo’s joyous and pragmatic acceptance of this structure—his recognition that he is capable of great deeds but nonetheless dependent on the protection of God—is one of the two spiritual insights required of dwellers in Middle-earth. (The other, a selfless love of the Creator and the Creation, is usually measured in terms of “elvishness.” Bilbo, attracted to elves from the very beginning and eventually named elf-friend, achieves this insight very easily.)
 
The proof of this providential pattern lies outside The Hobbit. The identity of the Eagles as messengers of God (as well as the significance of their coming out of the west in the Battle of Five Armies) is made clear in The Silmarillion; the importance of Bilbo’s decision not to kill Gollum is a major motif of The Lord of The Rings; and the geopolitical consequences of the death of Smaug are best explained in “The Quest of Erebor,” one of the fragments in Unfinished Tales. Yet the basic principle can be seen quite clearly within The Hobbit. Although on the surface it is stronger than good, evil always provides the means of its own defeat: Gollum’s ring aids Bilbo, and Smaug, in his arrogance, reveals his bare patch. Triumphing over evil requires not prowess but fortitude, humility, hope, and unshakable virtue. Gollum is corrupted by malice, and the dragon-spell turns Thorin’s pride to arrogance, deceit, and greed. But Bilbo and Bard, tutored by Gandalf, the Elvenking, and their own hearts, learn the true value of treasure and hatred, and joining together against evil, they destroy it.

BEYOND THE BOOK

Research Questions
 
Tolkien includes traditional creatures such as elves, dwarves, dragons, trolls, goblins, and wizards in his story. Choose one of these creatures and research its appearance in world myths, legends, and folktales. Create a multimedia presentation that answers the following questions: What specific tales do you think inspired Tolkien when he created his creatures? In what ways did he transform the source material of the traditional stories and legends? What characteristics of the creatures did Tolkien emphasize and what did he omit? What do his changes reveal about his values and his purpose in creating Middle-earth?
 
Explore the significance of birds in The Hobbit. What specific types of birds play a role in the story? Specific birds (for example, the Eagles) have heavy symbolic significance in world legends and mythology. Research the source materials that Tolkien may have used to create this story. Why do you think he chose these specific birds to play the roles that they did? Explain the historical and symbolic significance behind Tolkien’s use of birds.
 
Analyze the role of Gandalf in The Hobbit. Pay particular attention to his presence in terms of the way the book is structured. What is particularly significant about his presence at the beginning and end of the story? At what points does he leave? At what points does he reappear? How powerful is Gandalf? Research the source materials (especially Norse mythology and Western theology) that Tolkien may have used to create Gandalf.
 
Examine The Hobbit as a “prequel” to the Lord of the Rings trilogy. How does reading The Hobbit enrich your understanding and experience of the trilogy? In what specific ways doesTolkien use The Hobbit to “set up” later events? Which story is more satisfying? Explain your answer.
 
Analyze the motif of the hero’s journey in The Hobbit. In what ways does Bilbo Baggins experience the steps of an archetypal hero journey? Does Bilbo fit the description of an archetypal hero? Compare this story to another classical or modern quest narrative. How is Bilbo similar to other heroes in literature? How is he different?
 
Examine the treatment of race in The Hobbit. Is it fair to suggest that all members of a certain group (dwarves, trolls, goblins, elves, etc.) share the same characteristics? How does this treatment of ethnic groups reflect the cultural perspective of the first half of the twentieth century? How might the book be different if it were written today?
 
Analyze the book in relation to film adaptations of The Hobbit (the Bass/Rankin 1977 animated version and Peter Jackson’s 2012 live-action release). How do the film adaptations compare to the book? What do each of the directors choose to emphasize? What do they omit? How do their directorial decisions impact the story? Which version did you find more “faithful” to Tolkien’s vision? Which version did you enjoy more?
 

Common Core State Standards
 
The Hobbit meets the standard for text complexity for grades 9 and 10. A list of standards used to create this guide are listed below:
 
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas—Anchor Standard
 
• Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the author’s take.
 
Key Ideas and Details
 
• Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
 
• Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
 
• Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.
 
Craft and Structure
 
• Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone)
 
• Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.
 
• Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.
 
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
 
• Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment.
• Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work.
 
Writing
 
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
 
• Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
 
• Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
 
• Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
 
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
 
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
 
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
 
• Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating
understanding of the subject under investigation.
 
• Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
 
• Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
 
• Apply grades 9–10 reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work”).
 

OTHER TITLES OF INTEREST

The following books represent the best critical works about Tolkien and fantasy, as well as related works by Tolkien.
 
Books by Tolkien:
 
The Lord of the Rings, 3 volumes (The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King; Ballantine Books), relates the adventures of Frodo Baggins, Bilbo’snephew and heir, and focuses on Bilbo’s Ring, which is revealed to be the source of thepower of the Necromancer. In many ways a reworking of the plot and themes of The Hobbit,the trilogy is Tolkien’s masterpiece and one of the greatest literary fantasies, although the firstthree hundred pages are rather slow reading. The Silmarillion(Ballantine Books) presents thecreation of the world and the early history of the Middle-earth.
 
Unfinished Tales(Ballantine Books) contains posthumous fragments. The largest, the “Narn
I Hin Hurin,” when read in conjunction with “Of Turin Turambar” (in The Silmarillion),
is a compelling tale of steadfastness in the face of evil, the dooming of rash pride, and the
cunning of dragons.
 
Books About Tolkien:
 
Humphrey Carpenter, Tolkien: A Biography(Ballantine Books) is a sensitive study that traces the personal development of Tolkien’s mythic creation and suggests the emotional commitment required to make it a masterpiece.
 
Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-Earth (Ballantine Books) is the authoritative reference work for Tolkien’s fiction.
 
Paul Kocher, Master of the Middle-Earth(Ballantine Books) provides a graceful and insightful critical view of Tolkien’s fiction. Kocher’s chapter on The Hobbitis well worth reading.
 
Ruth Noel, The Mythology of Middle-Earth(Houghton Mifflin) is a convenient summary of the characteristics of key themes, races, places, and things in Middle-earth, suggesting their relation to (and origins in) European mythology.
Books About Fantasy:
 
Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment(Vintage) is a profound and compassionate testimonial to the value of fairy tales for child development.
 
J. R. R. Tolkien, “On Fairy Stories” (in The Tolkien Reader) is the seminal literary study of fantasy, stressing its emotional validity and spiritual rewards.
 
Books by and about Tolkien published by Random House, Inc.:
 
The Hobbit (0-345-33968-1)
The Fellowship of the Ring (0-345-33970-3)
The Two Towers (0-345-33971-1)
The Return of the King (0-345-33973-8)
The Silmarillion (0-345-32581-8)
The Tolkien Reader (0-345-34506-1)
Smith of Wootton Major & Farmer Giles of Ham (0-345-33606-2)
The Complete Guide to Middle-Earth by Robert Foster (0-345-32436-6)
Unfinished Tales (0-345-35711-6)
 
Helpful Links

Full text of Tolkien’s essay “On Fairy Stories”:
http://bjorn.kiev.ua/librae/Tolkien/Tolkien_On_Fairy_Stories.html     
 
The Tolkien Society: http://www.tolkiensociety.org/
 
A comprehensive list of links to various versions of the Beauty and the Beast story:
http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type0425c.html
 
A basic introduction to Norse Mythology: http://www.viking-mythology.com/
 
Interactive Hero’s Journey tool from Read Write Think:
http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/herosjourney/   



ABOUT THIS GUIDE

This guide was written in 1981 by Robert Foster. It has been updated and revised by Amy Jurskis to now include the Common Core State Standards.
 
Robert Foster is the author of The Complete Guide to Middle-Earth. Foster has taught Tolkien, science fiction, and fantasy at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Foster holds a BA in Linguistics from Columbia University and an MA and a PhD in English and Medieval Literature from the University of Pennsylvania.
 
Amy Jurskis is the author of several teaching guides. A former department chair for language arts in a title-one public school in Atlanta, she currently teaches English at Oxbridge Academy of the Palm Beaches in West Palm Beach, Florida.