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Referencing Research Paper Harvard Style References

Swinburne Harvard style guide

The Swinburne Harvard style guide is an author-date citation style. This guide is based on Snooks and Co. , Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.

Always check with your lecturer that this is the citation style guide required for your unit.

Guidelines

In-text references

Format

  • To cite a reference in the text of your work, insert the reference material and then immediately place the author's surname and the year of publication in brackets after it, e.g.(Dawkins )
  • You must include the page number(s) if you are paraphrasing the reference or quoting it, e.g. "The universe has" (Dawkins , p. ).
  • If you use the author's name in your sentence because they are well-known, then place the year of publication and page number in brackets after the name, e.g. Dawkins (, p. ) rationalises that
  • When you quote a single sentence, enclose it in double quotation marks: " ".
  • When you quote two or more sentences, then do not enclose them in double quotation marks – instead, place them on a new line, indent the entire quote and finish with the in-text reference. New text after that quote should commence on a new line and not be indented.
  • If you wish to quote a quote (not paraphrase a quote), then the in-text reference begins with the author(s) of the quote, then a comma, then the phrase ‘cited in’, then the author(s), year and page number (if applicable) of the source you are using. For example, if you were reading an article by Pavlovski published in and on page 33 of Pavlovski‘s article it included a quote from one of William Shakespeare’s famous plays, and you wanted to quote that quote by Shakespeare, then the in-text reference would be: (Shakespeare, cited in Pavlovski , p. 33). Your reference list does not need to mention Shakespeare, just Pavlovski.

Authors

  • Authors may be a single individual, a number of individuals, or an organisation.
  • In-text references use author's surnames only and do not include initials.
  • Where there is no author, use the title of the work (in italics) instead (e.g. Hatching and raising brine shrimp , p. 2).
  • For two or more authors, use an ampersand (&) between the last two author's names. If you are writing their names directly into your text, replace the ampersand with the word 'and'.
  • If you cite two or more works at the one place in your work by the same author but they were published in different years, list the author's name once and then arrange the years of publication for the in-text citation from oldest to newest e.g. (Flannery , p. 11; , p. 28; , p. 17).
  • For two or more authors with the same surname publishing different works in the same year, include all author initials after a comma after their surname, eg. Different research reported the same effects occurring, regardless whether it was in lakes (Nguyen, D , p. 3) or rivers (Nguyen, L , p. ).
  • You can cite two or more different information sources in the same single in-text references (especially when those sources all make the same point) eg. (Comert , p. 59; Faw , p. ; Li & Gao , p. ).

Dates

The Harvard Style is based on a combination of author and date. If a date of publication cannot be found use one of the following subsitutes:

  • c.  = circa (an approximate date), where you can determine to within a year or two without much effort. You should try to use this whenever possible eg. Evidently there is still uncertainty and ongoing debate about the actual colours painted on Tunisian Tigers (Chaltry c. ).
  • ? = a dubious / possible date. (Use when you can only determine to within a few years.)
  • n.d. = no known date (Use this very sparingly. Most dates can be roughly determined.)
  • forthcoming = a work to be published in the near future.

Page numbers

  • In-text references should include page number details (if available) if you are paraphrasing or quoting.
  • Page numbers are not required if referencing an entire work, eg. (Milligan ).
  • If page numbers are not provided or possible, then author name and year of publication are sufficient.
  • Use p. for a single page and pp. for a range of consecutive pages, e.g. (Dawkins , pp. )
  • Additional details such as volume numbers should only be used when necessary to avoid confusion with other volumes of the same series by an author.

Reference list

Format

  • All in-text citations must have fully detailed, corresponding entries placed in a reference list at the end of your assignment, unless an in-text citation is a personal communication which has been fully written into the body of your assignment and your assignment is not significantly comprised of personal communications.
  • Reference list entries should be arranged alphabetically by author's surname (or by organisation name).
  • If an organisation name begins with 'The', ignore it and arrange their name alphabetically by the next word, eg. The Centre for Academic Excellence is not arranged down in the letter T, but at the letter C.
  • Each new information source should begin on a new line.

Authors

  • Authors may be a single individual, a number of individuals, or an organisation.
  • In-text references use author's surnames only and do not include initials.
  • Where there is no author, use the title of the work (in italics) instead (e.g. Hatching and raising brine shrimp , p. 2).
  • For two or more authors, use an ampersand (&) between the last two author's names. If you are writing their names directly into your text, replace the ampersand with the word 'and'.
  • If you cite two or more works at the one place in your work by the same author but they were published in different years, list the author's name once and then arrange the years of publication for the in-text citation from oldest to newest e.g. (Flannery , p. 11; , p. 28; , p. 17).
  • For two or more authors with the same surname publishing different works in the same year, include all author initials after a comma after their surname, eg. Different research reported the same effects occurring, regardless whether it was in lakes (Nguyen, D , p. 3) or rivers (Nguyen, L , p. ).”
  • You can cite two or more different information sources in the same single in-text references (especially when those sources all make the same point) eg. (Comert , p. 59; Faw , p. ; Li & Gao , p. ).

Dates

The Harvard Style is based on a combination of author and date. If a date of publication cannot be found, use one of the following substitutes:

  • c.  = circa (an approximate date), where you can determine to within a year or two without much effort. You should try to use this whenever possible eg. Evidently there is still uncertainty and ongoing debate about the actual colours painted on Tunisian Tigers (Chaltry c. ).
  • ? = a dubious / possible date. (Use when you can only determine to within a few years.)
  • n.d. = no known date (Use this very sparingly. Most dates can be roughly determined.)
  • forthcoming = a work to be published in the near future.

Titles

  • Book titles, journal names and website titles should be in italics.
  • Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns of book titles should be capitalised.
  • All major words in the titles of journals, newspapers and magazines should be capitalised.
  • Chapter titles and journal/newspaper/magazine article titles should be enclosed in single quotation marks; they should not be in italics.

Volume / issue / series

Articles

  • Use the abbreviations vol. for volume and no. for issue number.
  • If there is no volume number, use the issue number.
  • If there is no volume or issue number, list any available designation such as the day and/or month or season.

Book in a series

  • Insert the series title after the title of the work.
  • The series title is not italicised.
  • If the series has a number or volume, insert 'vol.' or 'no.' after the series title.

Place of publication

  • If more than one place of publication is listed, use only the first-listed place.
  • Do not use full stops in abbreviated place names (e.g. NSW not N.S.W.)
  • Add extra location information if there is more than one place with the same name, eg. Melbourne, Victoria versus Melbourne, Florida; Richmond, Victoria versus Richmond, Tasmania.

Page numbers

Books

  • Page numbers are not usually needed in the reference list for books. If you do use them, add them at the end of the citation, preceded by a comma, and followed by a full stop, e.g. Huth, E , 'Fragments of participation in architecture, Graz and Berlin', in P Blundell Jones, D Petrescu & J Till (eds), Architecture and participation, Spon Press, London, pp.

Articles

  • Page numbers appear at the end of the citation, preceded by a comma, and followed by a full stop, e.g. Byrne, F, Coster, A & Deery, S , 'Ugg maker gets his boots on', Herald Sun, 11 March, p.
  • Some articles do not have pagination, but are instead allocated an article number. The article may then simply have its own internal pagination, or pagination using the article number as part of the pagination. If the article has an article number, but the article number is not used as part of the pagination, then simply place the article number after the volume and/or issue details, then finish with a fullstop, eg. … vol. 32, no. 5, e If the article has an article number and the article number is used as part of the pagination, list the pagination as it appears on the article eg. … vol. 28, no. 5,

Abbreviations

AbbreviationMeaning
&ampersand, which means 'and'
Anonshortened version of Anonymous
c.an approximate date, 
accurate to within one or two years eg. c.
ch.chapter
ed.editor
edseditors
ednedition
et al.'and others'
n.d.no date
no.number
nosnumbers
p.page
pp.pages
pdfa document software format
s.section number
ss.section numbers
transtranslated by
URLUniform Resource Locator. Formal title for internet address.
vol.volume
volsvolumes

Examples

Book

One author


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

Dawkins, R , The magic of reality, Black Swan, London.


In-text

Direct quote

"The universe has " (Dawkins , p. ).

Paraphrase

Dawkins (, p. ) asserted that


Notes

  • In-text references use author's surnames only and do not include initials, unless you are using two or more sources that have an author with the same surname and the sources were all published in the same year.

Two or three authors


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) & Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

Tiernan, A & Weller, P , Learning to be a Minister: heroic expectations, practical realities, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.


In-text

Direct quote

Tiernan and Weller (, p. ) state that " "

Paraphrase

A minister's performance will be (Tiernan & Weller , p. ).


Notes

  • List author's names in the order they are listed in the book.

Four or more authors


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s), Author, Initial(s), Author, Initial(s) & Author, Initial(s) Year of publication,Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

Gabler, M, Lienhard, J, Cremers, J & Knippers, J , Construction manual for polymers + membranes: materials semi-finished products, form-finding design, Birkhauser Architecture, Basel.


In-text

Direct quote

Gabler et al. (, p. 67) recommend ""

Paraphrase

The process involves (Gabler et al. , p. 68).


Notes

  • List author's names in the order they are listed in the book.
  • In-text: Only list the name of the first author followed by et al. (meaning 'and others')
  • Reference list: List all authors (do not use et al.).

No author


Reference list entry

Title Year of publication, Publisher, Place of publication.

Higher education in Australia: the facts , Business/Higher Education Round Table, Fitzroy, VIC.


In-text

Direct quote

Higher education in Australia: the facts (, p. 23) claims that "Australia is"

Paraphrase

Australia has a role in (Higher education in Australia: the facts ).


Notes

  • Use the title and the year in place of the author. Do not place a comma between the title and year.
  • List the item alphabetically in your reference list by the title.
  • Italicise the title, but do not italicise the year of publication.
  • Do not use Anon or Anonymous.

Organisation as author


Reference list entry

Organisation Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

International Chamber of Commerce , Incoterms ICC rules for the use of domestic and international trade terms, ICC Services, Paris.


In-text

Direct quote

The "seller is required to " (International Chamber of Commerce , p. ).

Paraphrase

The International Chamber of Commerce (, p. ) established that


Notes

  • Where the author is an organisation, use the name of the organisation as the author.
  • Use the same rules as for books with one author.

Chapter in an edited book


Reference list entry

Chapter Author, Initials(s) Year of publication, 'Chapter Title', in Editor's Initial(s) Surname (ed./eds), Book Title, Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers of chapter.

Connell, D , 'Flailing about in the Murray-Darling basin', in K Crowley & KJ Walker (eds), Environmental policy failure: the Australian story, Tilde University Press, Prahran, pp.


In-text

Direct quote

"States have " (Connell , p. 80).

Paraphrase

Connell (, p. 80) suggests


Notes

  • Enclose the chapter title in single quotation marks.
  • After the chapter title, insert the word 'in' before the name of the editor(s).
  • Use (ed.) for a single editor and (eds) for multiple editors.
  • In your reference list, use the editor's name with initials before surname (e.g. K Crowley)
  • If there is no chapter author, use the title in place of the author in-text and in the reference list.

Editions


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s), & Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title, edn (edition), Publisher, Place of publication.

McCurley, S, Lynch, R & Jackson, R , The complete volunteer management handbook, 3rd edn, Directory of Social Change, London.


In-text

Direct quote

"Volunteer programmes are " (McCurley, Lynch & Jackson , p. 78).

Paraphrase

McCurley, Lynch & Jackson (, p. 78) found that


Notes

  • The edition statement is only included if this is not the first edition (e.g. 2nd edn).
  • Insert the edition statement after the title.
  • Use the abbreviation edn (no full stop) for edition.
  • A reprint or revised version is not a new edition and does not need specific mentioning; year of publication is enough to identify a reprint.

Book in a series


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title of the book, Series Title, vol. (if available), Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers.

Cabrera, M & Malanowski, N (eds) , Information and communication technologies for active ageing: opportunities and challenges for the European Union, Assistive technology research series, vol. 23, IOS Press, Amsterdam.


In-text

Direct quote

"Demographic challenges are " (Cabrera & Malanowski , p. 7).

Paraphrase

Cabrera & Malanowski (, p. ) explain


Notes

  • Insert the series title after the title of the work.
  • The series title is not italicised.
  • If the series has a number or volume, insert 'vol.' or 'no.' after the series title.

Table/graph/image in a book


Reference list entry

'Table/graph title' [table], in Initial(s) Author Year, Title, Publisher, Place of Publication, page number(s).

'Table 1: Personality problems - behaviour predictors' [table], in R de Board , Counselling people at work: an introduction for managers, Gower, Aldershot, Hants., p.


In-text

Paraphrase

The graph (de Board, ) illustrates


Notes

  • Follow this example for a table/graph/image from a book, where no other part of the book is also used in the same assignment. If you use an image from one page and also information or quote from another page, then you don’t need to use this guideline – just follow the relevant guideline for the book as a whole instead.
  • Provide the bibliographic details of the image first, then the details of the information source in which it appears. If the author of the image is different to the author of the book, then guidelines similar to those at Chapter in an edited book will apply. If the year of publication of the image is different to the year of publication of the book, those different dates must be indicated in the reference list entry. 
  • Enclose the title of the graph/table/image in single quotes.
  • After the title, insert an identifier to describe what you are referencing: [table] for tables and flowcharts, [graph] for graphs, [advertisement] for advertisements, and [image] for everything else.
  • If you have one information source and use an image that was created by one person and a section of text written by a different person, or if you use two images from one source and they were both created by different people, then you will need to create separate reference list entries for each.

Ebook


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Ebook collection.

Appleby, G, Reilly, A & Grenfell, L , Australian public law, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Ebook Central (Proquest).


In-text

Direct quote

Appleby, Reilly and Grenfell (, p. ) express it this way: “The High Court's capacity…"

Paraphrase

Appleby, Reilly and Grenfell (, p. ) state that it is essential that the High Court must…


Notes

  • Use this example for ebooks sourced from Swinburne Library databases. Instead of place of publication, use the name of the ebook collection (e.g Books 24x7, Ebook Central (Proquest), eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost), etc.), as above.
  • For ebooks sourced from ereaders, replace the place of publication with the name of the ereader device (e.g. Kindle).
  • For ebooks sourced elsewehere online, use the guidelines for webpages.

Article

Journal article


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Article Title', Journal Title, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

Argibay-losada, P, Suarez-Gonzalez, A, Lopez-Garcia, C & Fernandez-Veiga, M , 'Flow splitting for end-to-end proportional QoS in OBS networks', IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 58, no. 1, pp.


In-text

Direct quote

"The main reason " (Argibay-losada et al. , p. ).

Paraphrase

Argibay-losada et al. (, p. ) identified that


Notes

  • Follow this example for journal and magazine articles from library databases or in print.
  • For articles freely available online, follow the example for Article on the internet below.
  • Enclose the article title in single quotes ''
  • If there is no volume number, just list the issue number.
  • If there is no volume or issue number, list any available designation such as the day and/or month, or season.
  • Some articles do not have pagination, but are instead allocated an article number. The article may then simply have its own internal pagination, or pagination using the article number as part of the pagination. If the article has an article number, but the article number is not used as part of the pagination, then simply place the article number after the volume and/or issue details, then finish with a fullstop eg. … vol. 32, no. 5, eIf the article has an article number and the article number is used as part of the pagination, list the pagination as it appears on the article, eg. … vol. 28, no. 5,

Journal article (no author)


Reference list entry

'Article Title' Year of publication, Journal Title, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

'World's oldest pills treated sore eyes' , New Scientist, vol. , no. , p.


In-text

Direct quote

According to World's oldest pills treated sore eyes (, p. 15), "In ancient Rome "

Paraphrase

and this treatment has existed since Roman times (World's oldest pills treated sore eyes , p. 15).


Notes

  • Where there is no author, use the title in place of the author's name.
  • For the reference list, enclose the article title in single quotes ''.
  • In-text, the article title is not enclosed in single quotes, but is in italics instead.
  • If there is no volume number, use the issue number.
  • If there is no volume or issue number, list any available designation such as the dy and/or month or season.
  • Some articles do not have pagination, but are instead allocated an article number. The article may then simply have its own internal pagination, or pagination using the article number as part of the pagination. If the article has an article number, but the article number is not used as part of the pagination, then simply place the article number after the volume and/or issue details, then finish with a fullstop eg. … vol. 32, no. 5, e If the article has an article number and the article number is used as part of the pagination, list the pagination as it appears on the article eg. … vol. 28, no. 5,

Newspaper article


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Article Title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page numbers.

Crowe, D , 'Big projects ordered to buy local', The Australian, 17 January, p. 1.


In-text

Direct quote

"Big investors will " (Crowe , p. 1)

Paraphrase

Crowe (, p. 1) claims bigger investors will


Notes

  • Newspaper articles are referenced the same as journal articles, just replace the vol/issue number with the day and month of publication. 

Newspaper article (no author)


Reference list entry

'Article Title' Year of publication, Newspaper Title, Day Month of issue, page numbers.

'Cyclists link up for homeless' , Herald Sun, 17 November, p. 9.


In-text

Direct quote

"Up to cyclists are expected" (Cyclists link up for homeless , p. 9)

Paraphrase

According to Cyclists link up for homeless (, p. 9) 6, cyclists were


Notes

  • Where there is no author, use the article title instead.
  • For the reference list, enclose the article title in single quotes ''.
  • In-text, the article title is not enclosed in single quotes, but is in italics instead. 

Magazine article

  • Magazine articles, sourced from library databases or in print, are referenced the same as journal articles.
  • If you are referencing a magazine article you found freely available online, use the example below for Article on the internet.

Table/graph/image in an article


Reference list entry

'Table/graph/advertisement/image title'
[table/graph/advertisement/image], in Initial(s) Author Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Title, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

‘Drop bear in its habitat’ [image], in V Janssen , ‘Indirect tracking of Drop Bears using GNSS technology’, Australian Geographer, vol. 43, no. 4, p.

In-text

Paraphrase

The front four fangs of the Drop Bear are very long and sharp (Janssen , p. ) and are able to tear meat


Notes

  • Follow this example for a table/graph/image from an article, where no other part of the book is used.
  • Provide the bibliographic details of the image first, then the details of the information source in which it appears. If the author of the image is different to the author of the article, then guidelines similar to those at Chapter in an edited book blended with Journal article will apply. If the year of publication of the image is different to the year of publication of the article, those different dates must be indicated in the reference list entry.
  • Enclose the title of the graph/table/image in single quotes.
  • After the title, insert an identifier to describe what you are referencing: [table] for tables and flowcharts, [graph] for graphs, [advertisement] for advertisements, and [image] for everything else.
  • If you have one information source and use an image that was created by one person and a section of text written by a different person, or if you use two images from one source and they were both created by different people, then you will need to create separate reference list entries for each.

Article on the internet


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Article Title', Newspaper/Journal/Magazine Title, Day Month (or volume/issue number if applicable), page number/s (if applicable), viewed Day Month, <URL>.

Khadem, N , ‘Men out-earn women by more than $26, WGEA gender pay gap report’, The Age, 17 November, viewed 17 November , <dfknj.wz.cz>.


In-text

Direct quote

This has led to urgent action, as “More employers are analysing their pay data for gender pay gaps – it was up nearly 11 percentage points in 12 months to per cent of employers” (Khadem ).

Paraphrase

per cent of employers have now examined their staff salaries for possible gaps due to gender (Khadem ).


Notes

  • Follow this example for articles freely available on the internet.
  • For articles from library databases or in print format, follow the example for journal or newspaper articles.
  • Where there is no author, use the title in place of the author's name – follow the guidelines and examples at Journal Article (no author) and Newspaper Article (no author).

Web

Website


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year, Title of Document/Webpage/Website, Organisation/Host, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Yates, J , Tax expenditures and housing, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, viewed 12 November , <dfknj.wz.cz>.


In-text

Direct quote

"Most official estimates " (Yates ).

Paraphrase

Yates () looked at the equity implications of tax


Notes

  • No author: Use the title of the webpage.
  • Organisation as author: The author may be the same as the organisation hosting the website.
  • Date: The year the webpage was created or last updated. You may use the copyright date if one is mentioned and there is no clear Year of creation/Year of update. Otherwise, see Dates under guidelines for reference lists above.
  • Title: The title of the webpage or document (e.g. pdf) should be in italics.
  • Organisation/Host: The organisation responsible for hosting the website / putting the information up onto the Web. The organisation/host may be the same as the organisation that is the author of the information.
  • URL: Include the full URL in angled brackets < > and finish with a fullstop.

Image


Reference list entry

Author Year of publication, 'Title of image' (or description) [image], Title of Webpage,Organisation/Host, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Lyle58 , 'German Type 82 Kubelwagen, WWII reenactment' [image], in Lyle58's photostream, Flickr, viewed 30 August , <dfknj.wz.cz>.


In-text

Paraphrase

In the image above (Lyle58 ) you can see


Notes

  • Follow this example for a table/graph/image from a webpage or web document, where no other part of the webpage or web document book is used.
  • Provide the bibliographic details of the image first, then the details of the information source in which it appears. If the author of the image is different to the author of the article, then guidelines similar to those at Chapter in an edited book blended with Website will apply. If the year of publication of the image is different to the year of publication of the article, those different dates must be indicated in the reference list entry.
  • Enclose the title of the graph/table/image in single quotes.
  • After the title, insert an identifier to describe what you are referencing: [table] for tables and flowcharts, [graph] for graphs, [advertisement] for advertisements, and [image] for everything else.
  • If there is no author's name but only a username, use the username as the author name and use it exactly as it appears on the information source.
  • If you have one information source and use an image that was created by one person and a section of text written by a different person, or if you use two images from one source and they were both created by different people, then you will need to create separate reference list entries for each.

Blog


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Blog Post Title', Title of Blog, Day Month (of post), viewed Day Month year, <URL>.

Berg, J , 'Failure, organizational culture, and library management', BeerBrarian, 20 November, viewed 26 November , < dfknj.wz.cz>.


In-text

Direct quote

Berg () reminds us that "Failure is…"

Paraphrase

Library directors will (Berg ).


Notes

  • If there is no author's name but only a username, use the username as the author name and use it exactly as it appears on the blog.
  • If there is no author name or username, use the blog post title instead.
  • After the title of the blog, put the day and month of the individual post.
  • If an author posts multiple entries on the same day, include the time the entry was posted (e.g. 12 August,  PM)

Podcast


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year, Title of podcast, Title of show (if any), Name of Organisation/Website (if any), Day Month (of posting, if any), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Clements S, Krone, B, Girimaji, J & Denny, M , E17 – enhancing your wireless with a MSE, No Strings Attached Show, 10 December, viewed 12 November , <dfknj.wz.cz>.


In-text

Direct quote

"" (Clements et al. )

Paraphrase

Clements et al. () discussed


Notes

  • For radio podcasts follow the example for TV and radio under Other sources.
  • Where there is no identifiable author or speaker, use the title of the podcast in place of the author. Example: Ira Flatow and the Teachable Moment , Science Talk, Scientific American, 20 September, viewed 6 November , <dfknj.wz.cz?id=ira-flatow-and-the-teachable-moment>.

Social media


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s)/Username Year of post, Title (or brief description of post), Day Month (date of post), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Dent, G , Grace Dent, 13 January, viewed 23 January , <dfknj.wz.cz>.


In-text

Direct quote

Dent () stated that ""

Paraphrase

(Dent )


Notes

  • Social media is usually cited as you would reference a website.
  • If there is no author's name use the username instead.
  • You do not need to list the name of the platform (eg. Facebook, Twitter).
  • If an author posts multiple entries on one day, include the time after the date (e.g. 13 January, AM).

Online video


Reference list entry

Author Initial(s)/Username Year, Title of video, Day Month (video was posted), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

INSEADofficial , Social responsibility in business today, 14 June, viewed 13 November , <dfknj.wz.cz?v=0qwDQN-b72Y>.


In-text

Direct quote

"35% of GDP comes from new remittances" (INSEADofficial ).

Paraphrase

Chris Taylor's interview on INSEADofficial () was


Notes

  • Use this example for video sharing sites such as YouTube and Vimeo.
  • If there is no author's name but only a username, use the username as the author name and use it exactly as it appears on the video sharing site.
  • After the title, include the day and month the video was added.

Government

Australian Bureau of Statistics


Reference list entry

Australian Bureau of Statistics Year of publication, Title, catalogue number, ABS, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Australian Bureau of Statistics , Marriages and divorces, Australia, cat. no. , ABS, viewed 14 October , <dfknj.wz.cz@.nsf/Lookup/Main+Features?OpenDocument>.


In-text

Direct quote

The Australian Bureau of Statistics () reported that "The marriage rate "

Paraphrase

The figures showed (Australian Bureau of Statistics ).


Notes

  • Use ‘Australian Bureau of Statistics’ as the author, unless an individual author or group of authors are clearly identifiable. For instance, individual authors used to write the Australian Bureau of Statistics Yearbooks, and were clearly identified on the cover.
  • Include the ABS catalogue number after the title, if the item has one.
  • Use ABS as the Organisation/Host details.
  • Use the abbreviation 'cat. no.' for the catalogue number.

Acts of Parliament


Reference list entry

Title of the Act Year of publication (Jurisdiction), Location online, Section number (if applicable), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Civil Aviation Safety Regulations  (Cwlth), ComLaw, s. 21, viewed 21 December , <dfknj.wz.cz>.


In-text

Direct quote

"A person who" (Civil Aviation Safety Regulations  (Cwlth), s)

Paraphrase

Civil Aviation Safety Regulations  (Cwlth) provides for


Notes

  • Italicise both the title and year of publication.
  • List the abbreviation of the jurisdiction in brackets, e.g. for Commonwealth, use (Cwlth); for Victoria, use (Vic); for Western Australia, use (WA); etc.
  • Use 's.' or 'ss.' for the section number, e.g. s. 24 or ss.

Cases


Reference list entry

Name of the Case (Year), Report series and first page number, AustLII, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

R v Ramage () VSC , AustLII, viewed 4 April , <dfknj.wz.cz>.


In-text

Direct quote

The judge in R v Ramage () VSC stated the "The Court cannot allow…"

Paraphrase

The judge in R v Ramage () VSC acknowledged …


Notes

  • For in-text references, write the full details directly into your text – only the year is enclosed in parentheses.
  • Italicise the name of the case.
  • List the report series using the abbreviation (e.g HCA stands for High Court of Australia).
  • If a case is reported in multiple report series, list all of the report series and starting page numbers, separated by semicolons (e.g HCA 63; CLR ; ALR 1; 76 ALJR 1)

Other sources

Conference paper


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Title of the paper', Title of the conference, Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers.

Hentschel, C, Wagner, A & Spanner-Ulmer, B , 'Analysis of the application of the assembly-specific evaluation method EAWS for the ergonomic evaluation of logistic processes', Contemporary ergonomics and human factors , CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp.


In-text

Direct quote

"Evaluation of logistic " (Hentschel, Wagner & Spanner-Ulmer , p. )

Paraphrase

Hentschel, Wagner & Spanner-Ulmer (, p. ) explain that


Notes

  • If there is no identifiable author, use the title instead.
  • Date of publication may differ to the date of the conference – for conferences held in the last third of a year, the publication of the conference proceedings will be in the following year.
  • If the title of the conference also includes the place and date that the conference was held, then these should also be included in the title.

Dictionary or encyclopedia


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s) Year of publication, 'Title of entry', in Editor's Initial(s) Surname (ed./eds),Title of encyclopedia, Edition (if not the first), Volume number (if any), Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers.

Meadows, M , 'Indigenous media (Australia)', in JDH Downing (ed.), Encyclopedia of social movement media, SAGE Publications, Los Angeles, pp.


In-text

Direct quote

Meadows (, p. ) tells us that "Indigenous media "

Paraphrase

In Australia (Meadows , p. )


Notes

  • List the entry title in single quotation marks and the encyclopedia title in italics.
  • Authored entry: Use the same layout as a chapter in an edited book (as above).
  • No author: If there is no author for an entry, use the title of the entry instead. Example: 'Scherenfernrohr' , in P Chamberlain & S Zaloga (eds), Encyclopaedia of WWII field equipment, Wotpress, Minsk.
  • Online from Swinburne Library: If you are using an encyclopedia from a library database, replace the publisher and place of publication with the database name. Example: 'Naga' , in J Bowker (ed.), The concise Oxford dictionary of world religions, Oxford Reference.

Film, video or DVD


Reference list entry

Title Year of release [format], Production company, Place of Publication (if any).

Despicable me 2  [DVD], Universal Studios.


In-text

Direct quote

" " (Despicable me 2 )

Paraphrase

Reformation of criminals in Despicable me 2 () is explored by…


Notes

  • Enclose the format in square brackets, e.g [DVD], [VHS], [Blu-ray].
  • Any other details you decide are useful to help further identify the particular source you use can be included after the Place of Publication (eg Director's cut). Place a fullstop after Place of Publication, list the extra details and place fullstops between each different set of details.

Industry reports


Reference list entry

Author, Initial(s)/Organisation Year of publication, Title, Library database, Report number (if any).

Williams, M , Gold ore mining in Australia, IBISWorld, B


In-text

Direct quote

"The industry has also faced higher" (Williams , p. 5).

Paraphrase

Williams (, p. 5) claims industry faces higher


Notes

  • Follow this example for industry and market reports from Swinburne Library databases.
  • Where there is no author, use the organisation responsible for the report. Example: 
    Morningstar Australasia , Bank of Queensland Limited BOQ, DatAnalysis Premium.

Lecture


Reference list entry

Lecturer, Initial Year, 'Lecture title', Course code and name, Location online, University name, Date of presentation, viewed Day Month Year.

Gao, Y , ‘Lecture 3. Aircraft evaluation and selection’, AVA Aviation Regulation & Operation, Learning materials on Blackboard, Swinburne University of Technology, 15 August, viewed 30 August


In-text

Direct quote

"Systems can be natural or artificial" (Tipping )

Paraphrase

Tipping () explained


Notes

  • Follow this example for notes you or others took during lectures, or the Powerpoint slides from the lectures made available on Blackboard.
  • Enclose the lecture title in single quotes.
  • Course code and name are both italicised.

Non-Swinburne content in Swinburne Commons


Reference list entry

Treat as per relevant guidelines for information source but add Swinburne Commons, viewed Day Month Year.

Louis, L , Guide to Road Tunnels Part 1: Introduction to Road Tunnels, (AGRT01/10), Swinburne Commons, viewed 28 April

In-text

Direct quote

"…reinforced by bright steel mesh” (Louis , p. 78).

Paraphrase

…use of reinforced concrete for culverts (Louis , p. 78).

Leaflet / booklet


Reference list entry

Author/Organisation Year of publication, Title (or description), Publisher, Place of Publication, leaflet/booklet.

Epworth Richmond ?, Allergy challenge procedure, Epworth Richmond, Victoria, leaflet.


In-text

Direct quote

" " (Epworth Richmond ?)

Paraphrase

A brochure from the Epworth Richmond (?) demonstrated


Notes

  • Use this example for flyers, information sheets, pamphlets, brochures etc.
  • A leaflet is a single sheet of paper. A booklet is two or more sheets of paper joined together.
  • If there is no author, use the title of the pamphlet or the organisation/publisher as the author.
  • Use c. if you can determine an approximate date; ? for a possible date; and n.d. when no date can be determined at all (Use n.d. very sparingly. Most dates can be roughly determined).
  • If publisher and/or place of publication cannot be determined, they can be omitted.

Personal communication


In-text

Author Year, Day Month

Direct quote

This was confirmed by email (Kelly , 3 July).

Paraphrase

Peter Kelly confirmed this by email (, 3 July).


Notes

  • Includes emails, letters, interviews, phonecalls, conversations, presentations/public lectures, private social media communications etc. Personal communications should be written directly into your text.
  • A reference list entry is not required, unless your information sources are mostly comprised of personal communications.
  • Get permission from the person you are citing before using their details.
  • Keep hardcopies/printouts of emails and private social media communications as you may be required to prove their existence.

Standards


Reference list entry

Author Year of publication, Title, (Standard Number), Library database.

Standards Australia , LP Gas fuel vessels for automotive use, (AS/NZS ), SAI Global Limited.


In-text

Direct quote

The rule from Standards Australia (, p. 23) is: "An adhesive label "

Paraphrase

It is permissible to (Standards Australia , p. 23).


Notes

  • Follow this example for Australian standards, IEEE, ASTM and SAE standards.
  • The standard number should be enclosed in brackets.
  • You must list the library database used to access the standard.

Thesis


Reference list entry

Author, Initial/s Year of publication, 'Title of thesis', Award, Institution, Location of Institution.

Jiang, J , 'Balancing the roles of paid employment and unpaid caregiving', PhD thesis, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne.


In-text

Direct quote

"A caregiver's propensity to leave the workforce " (Jiang , p. 40)

Paraphrase

Jiang's () research found


Notes

  • Theses are unpublished works, so the title is in single quotes, not italics.
  • For Award,you can use relevant qualification sought, e.g PhD thesis, Masters thesis, Honours thesis.
  • For a thesis accessed freely online, blend these guidelines with the guidelines for websites, eg. Taylor, J , 'The role of emotion regulation in compulsive hoarding',  PhD thesis, Swinburne University of Technology, viewed 21 November , <dfknj.wz.cz%20Taylor%dfknj.wz.cz>.

TV and radio


Reference list entry

Program Title Year of broadcast [format], Series title (if any), Broadcasting station, Day and Month of broadcast.

Laughter as medicine  [radio program], RN Drive, ABC Radio National, 15 October.


In-text

Direct quote

" " (Laughter as medicine )

Paraphrase

Laughter as medicine () explored


Notes

  • Follow this example for referencing live broadcasts or TV and radio sourced from Library databases.
  • For format use [television program] or [radio program].
  • If there is no program title, use the series title instead. For example: 
    RN Drive  [radio program], ABC Radio National, 5 December.
  • For podcasts of radio programs, add the date viewed and URL to the podcast file. For example:
    The proteins which regulate obesity [radio program], The Science Show, ABC Radio National, 1 December, viewed 6 December , <dfknj.wz.cz>.”

Useful links

Harvard Format Citation Guide

This is a complete guide to Harvard in-text and reference list dfknj.wz.cz easy-to-use, comprehensive guide makes citing any source easy. Check out our other citation guides on APA and MLA 8 referencing.

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1. Harvard Referencing Basics: Reference List

A reference list is a complete list of all the sources used when creating a piece of work. This list includes information about the sources like the author, date of publication, title of the source and more. A Harvard reference list must:

  • Be on a separate sheet at the end of the document

  • Be organised alphabetically by author, unless there is no author then it is ordered by the source title, excluding articles such as a, an or the

    • If there are multiple works by the same author these are ordered by date, if the works are in the same year they are ordered alphabetically by the title and are allocated a letter (a,b,c etc) after the date

  • Be double spaced: there should be a full, blank line of space between each line of text

  • Contain full references for all in-text references used

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2. Harvard Referencing Basics: In-Text

In-text references must be included following the use of a quote or paraphrase taken from another piece of work.

In-text references are references written within the main body of text and refer to a quote or paraphrase. They are much shorter than full references. The full reference of in-text citations appears in the reference list. In Harvard referencing, in-text citations contain the author(s)’s or editor(s)’s surname, year of publication and page number(s). Using an example author James Mitchell, this takes the form:

Mitchell (, p. ) states.. Or (Mitchell, , p. )

(Note: p. refers to a single page, pp. refers to a range of pages)

Two or Three Authors:

When citing a source with two or three authors, state all surnames like so:

Mitchell, Smith and Thomson (, p. ) states… Or

(Mitchell, Coyne and Thomson, , p. )

Four or More Authors:

In this case, the first author’s surname should be stated followed by ‘et al’:

Mitchell et al (, p. ) states… Or (Mitchell et al, , p, )

No Author:

If possible, use the organisation responsible for the post in place of the author. If not, use the title in italics:

(A guide to citation, , pp. )

Multiple Works From the Same Author in the Same Year:

If referencing multiple works from one author released in the same year, the works are allocated a letter (a, b, c etc) after the year. This allocation is done in the reference list so is done alphabetically according to the author's surname and source title:

(Mitchell, a, p. ) or Mitchell (b, p. )

Citing Multiple Works in One Parentheses:

List the in-text citations in the normal way but with semicolons between different references:

(Mitchell, , p. ; Smith, ; Andrews, , pp. )

Citing Different Editions of the Same Work in One Parentheses:

Include the author(s)’s name only once followed by all the appropriate dates separated by semicolons:

Mitchell (; ) states… Or (Mitchell, ; )

Citing a Reference With No Date:

In this case simply state ‘no date’ in place of the year: (Mitchell, no date, p. ).

Citing a Secondary Source:

In this case, state the reference you used first followed by ‘cited in’ and the original author:

Smith (cited in Mitchell, , p. ) or (Smith, , cited in Mitchell, , p. )

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3. How to Cite Different Source Types

  • In-text citations remain quite constant across source types, unless mentioned explicitly, assume the in-text citation uses the rules stated above

  • Reference list references vary quite a lot between sources.

How to Cite a Book in Harvard Format

Book referencing is the simplest format in Harvard referencing style. The basic format is as follows:

Book Referencing Example:

Mitchell, J.A. and Thomson, M. () A guide to citation.3rd edn. London: London Publishings.

How to Cite an Edited Book in Harvard Format

Edited books are collations of chapters written by different authors. Their reference format is very similar to the book reference except instead of the author name, the editor name is used followed by (eds.) to distinguish them as an editor. The basic format is:

Editor surname(s), initial(s). (eds.) (Year Published). Title. Edition. Place of

publication: publishers

Edited Book Example:

William, S.T. (eds.) () Referencing: a guide to citation rules. New York: My Publisher

How to Cite a Chapter in an Edited Book in Harvard Format

For citing chapters, you need to add the chapter author and chapter title to the reference. The basic format is as follows:

Chapter in an Edited Book Example:

Troy B.N. () ‘Harvard citation rules’ in Williams, S.T. (ed.) A guide to citation rules. New York: NY Publishers, pp.

In-Text Citations: Chapter in an Edited Book

Use the chapter author surname, not the editor.

How to Cite an E-Book in Harvard Format

To reference an e-book, information about its collection, location online and the date it was accessed are needed as well as author name, title and year of publishing:

If the e-book is accessed via an e-book reader the reference format changes slightly:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year Published). Title. Edition. E-book format [e-book reader]. Available at URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

This includes information about the e-book format and reader, for instance this could be ‘Kindle e-book [e-book reader]’.

E-Book Example:

Mitchell, J.A., Thomson, M. and Coyne, R.P. () A guide to citation. E-book library [online]. Available at: dfknj.wz.cz (Accessed: 10 September )

How to Cite a Journal Article in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a journal article is:

Journal Article Example

Mitchell, J.A. ‘How citation changed the research world’, The Mendeley, 62(9), p

Journal Article Online Example

Mitchell, J.A. ‘How citation changed the research world’, The Mendeley, 62(9) [online]. Available at:  dfknj.wz.cz (Accessed: 15 November )

How to Cite a Newspaper Article in Harvard Format

Citing a newspaper article is similar to citing a journal article except, instead of the volume and issue number, the edition and date of publication are needed:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month,

page number(s).

Note: edition is used only where applicable.

Newspaper Article Example:

Mitchell, J.A. () ‘Changes to citation formats shake the research world’, The Mendeley Telegraph (Weekend edition), 6 July, pp

How to Cite an Online Journal or Newspaper Article in Harvard Format

To cite an online journal or newspaper article, the page numbers section from the print journal or newspaper reference is swapped with the URL or DOI the article can be accessed from and when it was accessed. So the reference for an online journal article is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of article’,  Title of journal, volume(issue/season) [online]. Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

And the reference for an online newspaper article is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month [online]. Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

How to Cite Non-Print Material in Harvard Format

How to Cite an Online Photograph in Harvard Format

The basic format is as follows:

Photograph surname, initial. (Year of publication) Title of photograph [online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Online Photograph Example:

Millais, J.E. () Ophelia [online]. Available at: dfknj.wz.cz (Accessed: 21 June )

How to Cite a Film in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a film is:

Film Example:

Rear Window () Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures.

How to Cite a TV Programme in Harvard Format

The basic format for citing a TV programme is as follows:

TV Programme Example:

‘Fly’ () Breaking Bad, Series 2, episode AMC, 23 May

How to Cite Music in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite an album is as follows:

Music Example:

Beyonce () Lemonade [Visual Album] New York: Parkwood Records. Available at: dfknj.wz.cz (Accessed: 17 February ).

How to Cite a Website in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a website is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year of publishing)  Title of page/site [Online[. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Website Example:

Mitchell, J.A. () How and when to reference [Online]. Available at: dfknj.wz.cz (Accessed: 27 May )

To learn more about citing a web page and entire websites in APA, MLA or Harvard check out How to Cite a Website post.

For a summary of all the references for each source type along with examples take a look at our Ultimate Citation Cheat Sheet. It also contains examples for MLA 8 and APA formats.

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