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Wiki Essay On Pollution In Nepal

Find here some facts and information about water pollution in Nepal. You can get information here in this post about river water pollution in Nepal, water pollution causes and solution in Nepal, status and effects of water pollution in Nepal, report on causes of Water Pollution in Nepal.

Water Pollution in Nepal : Source, Causes, Solution, Effects etc

Pollution is an undesirable change in physical and biotic element of the environment which affects adversely the plants and animals life. Water pollution deals with the pollution of aquatic medium and them affects on biotic community of water. It degrades the natural quality of water and makes it unfit for any use. The process of modernization characterized by the rapid industrialization and urbanization in both developed and developing countries including Nepal have led to the growth of environment pollution. As a result, the issue of sustainable industrial development is getting prominence in global scale. In addition, increased pollution from urban and industrial effluents released in upstream states would make even this reduced flow available less fit for human use.

photo by dfknj.wz.cz

Pollution of water is the most serious public health issue in Nepal. Many people drink water from spring, streams, canals, ponds, wells, rives, etc. Many studies indicates that the public water supply is far form satisfactory in almost all localities in term of bacterial contamination.

It came to the government of Nepal&#;s notice through newspaper reports that Nepal was contemplating building a barrage on the Nepal&#;s river, ostensibly to supply water to Terai. Nepal&#;s concerns were conveyed to the government of Nepal but did not receive much sympathy from Kathmandu.

Sources of Water Pollution in Nepal

The major sources of water pollution are grouped as follow:

  1. Industrial source &#; Inorganic & organic effluents, poisons, etc
  2. Domestic source &#; Sewage, detergents, etc.
  3. Agricultural source &#; Pesticides, Insecticides, fungicides, etc.
  4. Oil &#; from automobiles and tankers
  5. Physical pollutants &#; Radioactive substances, thermal and nuclear power plants

photo by dfknj.wz.cz

Effects of Water Pollution in Nepal

Following are the major pollutants of water and their effect to the aquatic living organisms. Effects of water pollution are given as follows:

1. Inorganic & organic effluents &#;

Sulphides, sulphites and other organic residues are the major pollutants of water released from various industries such as Dairy, Tanniers, Paper mills, etc. These reduce the oxygen content of water and adversely affect aquatic flora and fauna.

photo by dfknj.wz.cz

2. Domestic waste and sewage &#;

Sewage is the liquid waste discharged from all domestic and industrial sources. Untreated sewage is discharged into fresh water bodies. It has been estimated that about 75 % water pollution is caused by domestic waste and sewage, It causes spreading of water-born disease and the toxic substances in water kill the useful living organisms and destroy the biological activity As the sewage contains organic matter that harbour disease causing microorganisms and accelerates dissolved oxygen consumption for decomposition of such huge amount of organic matter by microorganisms. This process leads to develop maximum &#;biological oxygen demand&#; (BOD).

BOD is defined as the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic matters by microbial action. The BOD value of clean water is usually between 1 and 2 mg/litre. It is used as an indicator of degree of pollution.

A Nepalese man is searching valuable things in the Bagmati river

photo by dfknj.wz.cz

3. Hot water &#;

A large volume of hot water released from many industries cause serious thermal pollution.

4. Poison &#;

Acids, alkaline, lead, copper, cyanides are the poisonous substances which are released from various sources. These reduce oxygen-transporting capacity of blood in human.

photo by dfknj.wz.cz

5. Oil &#;

Spilling and washing of automobiles release the oil. The river and ocean get polluted from oil tanker. As oil spread over the surface of water, it decreases the oxygenation in water so that aquatic animals are badly affected.

6. Pesticides, Insecticides and fungicides &#;

These are the poisonous chemicals which are used by farmers in their fields to kill agricultural pests. These are washed from the fields into the river and are taken up by many organisms through food chain.

7. Nitrates and phosphates &#;

Accumulation of nitrates and phosphates in water cause eutrophication. It is the natural process due to which organic nutrients are accumulated in the pond or lake water causing excessive growth of microorganisms and aquatic vegetation as bloom. It leads to the decrease in oxygen level.

photo by dfknj.wz.cz

Solution of Water Pollution in Nepal

Water pollution may be prevented by the following ways:

1. Recycling of waste products &#;

Different types of wastes and pollutants may be recycled. These recycling facilities should be formulated and implemented by all industries.

2. Cleaning and treatment of waste water-

a. Primary treatment &#;

This treatment involves sedimentation, flotation, screening, etc. The waste may be removed by throwing the settled suspend or gravel.

b. Secondary treatment &#;

This method involves the allowing of water to pass through a thick layer of stone or gravel.

photo by dfknj.wz.cz

3. Control of irruption at distribution of industries.

4. Provide all cities with proper drainage. Efficient sewage collection and waste waster treatment facilities should be properly managed.

5. The use of pesticides should be minimized.

6. Education programmes are needed to inform the people in the protection of river and use of safe water

7. Various legislative measures should be employed to control water pollution.

A Rat death: An effect of polluted water of the river

photo by dfknj.wz.cz

Points for the Solution for Drinking in Nepal:

  • To conserve and keep the water sources clean.
  • Use drinking water after purity test only.
  • Make arrangement of drinking water with the coordination of government sector and local community.
  • Use boiled and filtered water for drinking.
  • Make provisions to fulfill the demands of drinking water in urban areas.
  • Bring awareness among the people regarding the proper use of water without wasting it.

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Filed Under: NepalTagged With: Air and Water Pollution in Nepal, Causes of Water Pollution in Nepal, Effects of Water Pollution in Nepal, Report on Water Pollution in Nepal, River Water Pollution in Nepal, Solution of Water Pollution in Nepal, Visit Nepal, Water in Nepal, Water Pollution in Nepal, Water Pollution in Nepal Pdf, Water Pollution in Nepal PPT, Water Pollution in Nepal Wikipedia

This article is about the river. For the region, see Bagmati Zone.

Bagmati (बागमती खुसी, बागमती नदी)
River

Bagmati River at Pashupatinath Temple

CountryNepal
StateBagmati Zone
Tributaries
&#;-&#;leftLalbakaiya,Bisnumati
&#;-&#;rightManohara,Marin khola,Adhwara,Kamala
CitiesKathmandu,Patan
SourceBagdwar
&#;-&#;locationShivapuri, Kathmandu, Nepal
&#;-&#;elevation2,&#;m (8,&#;ft)
&#;-&#;coordinates27°46′16″N85°25′38″E / °N °E / ;
MouthConfluence with Koshi River
&#;-&#;locationKhagaria, India
&#;-&#;coordinates26°07′19″N85°42′29″E / °N °E / ; Coordinates: 26°07′19″N85°42′29″E / °N °E / ;

The Bagmati River[n 1] runs through the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal and separates Kathmandu from Patan. It is considered holy by both Hindus and Buddhists. A number of Hindu temples are located on its banks.

The importance of Bagmati also lies in the fact that Hindus are cremated on the banks of this holy river, and Kirants are buried in the hills by its side. According to the Nepalese Hindu tradition, the dead body must be dipped three times into the Bagmati River before cremation, so that the reincarnation cycle may be ended. The chief mourner (usually the first son) who lights the funeral pyre must take a holy river-water bath immediately after cremation. Many relatives who join the funeral procession also take a bath in the Bagmati River or sprinkle the holy water on their bodies at the end of cremation. The Bagmati River purifies the people spiritually.

History[edit]

The Bagmati River is considered the source of Nepalese civilization and urbanization.[2] The river has been mentioned as Vaggumuda (वग्गुमुदा) in Vinaya Pitaka and Nandabagga.[2] It has also been mentioned as Bahumati (बाहुमति) in Battha Suttanta of Majjhima Nikaya.[2] An inscription dated AD&#; describes the river as Bagvati parpradeshe (वाग्वति पारप्रदेशे) and subsequently in Gopalraj Vanshavali.[2]

Geography[edit]

The Chobar gorge cuts through the Mahabharat Range, also called the Lesser Himalaya. This 2,to-3,meter (6, to 9,&#;ft) range is the southern limit of the "middle hills" across Nepal, an important cultural boundary between distinctive Nepali and more Indian cultures and languages, as well as a major geological feature.

The basin of the Bagmati River, including the Kathmandu Valley, lies between the much larger Gandaki basin to the West and the Kosi Basin to the east. These adjacent basins extend north of the main Himalayan range and cross it in tremendous gorges, in fact, the Arun tributary of the Kosi extends far into Tibet. The smaller Bagmati rises some distance south of the Himalaya. Without glacial sources, its flow is more dependent on rainfall, becoming very low during the hot season (April to early June), then peaking during the monsoon season (mid-June to mid-August). In these respects, the Bagmati system resembles the (West) Rapti system lying between the Gandaki basin and the Karnali basin in the far west of Nepal.

The Bagmati originates where three headwater streams converge at Bāghdwār (Nepali: बाघद्वार, "Tiger Gate"), where the water flows out through a gargoyle shaped like a tiger's mouth.[3][4] This lies above the southern edge of the Shivapuri Hills about 15 kilometers (9&#;mi) northeast of Kathmandu. Here the Bagmati is wide and swift with a high load of suspended solids, giving it a grey appearance.[4] The river flows southwest about 10&#;km (6&#;mi) through terraced rice fields in the Kathmandu Valley.[4]

Resistant rock strata interrupt the flow in places, including at Pashupatinath Temple.[4] Beyond the temple, the river flows south until joined by the larger west-flowing Monahara River, then turns west itself. After entering Kathmandu's urban area more tributaries enter: relatively unpolluted[4] Dhobī Kholā[6] and sewage-laden Tukucha Khola.[4][7][n 2]

Then the river bends south and the Vishnumati enters from the right at Teku Dovan. The Vishnumati also rises in the Shivapuri Hills, some 6 kilometers (4&#;mi) west of the Bagmati's source. It flows south past Nagarjun Hill and Forest Reserve, Swayambhu Stupa and Durbar Square in Kathmandu. As it passes the centre of Kathmandu, this tributary becomes heavily polluted and choked with trash.

Flowing generally south although with many curves, the Bagmati reaches the edge of the Kathmandu Valley and enters Chobar Gorge near the Dakshinkali temple complex. The gorge cuts through the Mahabharat Range or Lesser Himalaya. The Bagmati also crosses the lower Sivalik Hills before reaching the Terai, then crosses into India at Dheng. It flows across Bihar districts Sitamarhi, Sheohar, Muzaffarpur and Khagaria. As it flows to Bihar the river is full with silt load and is notorious for changing its course and braids into many branches one of such branch joins Burhi Gandak river near Begusarai and the combined river drains into Ganga east of Begusarai while the main channel runs east to drain into Koshi at Badlaghat. However in past the river had a different course and used to drain directly into the Ganges. In Swasthani Bratakatha of Skanda Purana, Bagmati's present northern tributary was regarded as main channel called Sali river which was a tributary of the Gandak and it is obvious since Manohara river, the present day Sali river is larger than Bagmati at their confluence.

Pollution[edit]

The Bagmati River contains large amounts of untreated sewage, and large levels of pollution of the river exist due primarily to the region's large population. Many residents in Kathmandu empty personal garbage and waste into the river.[8] In particular the Hanumante khola, Dhobi khola, Tukucha khola and Bishnumati khola are the most polluted.[7] Attempts are being made to monitor the Bagmati River system and restore its cleanliness. These include "pollution loads modification, flow augmentation and placement of weirs at critical locations".

In May 18, , under the initiative of former chief secretary Leela mani Poudyal, The Bagmati Mega Clean Up Campaign was started. Every Saturday, Nepal Army, Nepal Police and General Public gather to clean the waste and sewage from the river. The Friends of the Bagmati is an organisation set up in November According to its website, its aim is "to reverse the degradation of the Bagmati river." In , Bagmati River is claimed to be almost pure after a long effort of 14 years.

Flood[edit]

There is no effect of flood in most of the areas that it touches, but it has caused widespread sufferings to the people in Terai and northern districts of Bihar. In , people have seen the worst destruction by this river. Poor water management, lack of proper weather forecasting and awareness were the main cause of mass destruction.[10]

Shrines[edit]

  • Gokarneshwor - GokarneshworMahadev temple stands the banks of the Bagmati River, built in In late August or early September people go to this temple to bathe and make offerings in honor of their fathers, living or dead, on a day called Gokarna Aunsi also known as "Kushi Aausi" (worshipping for the eternal peace of Father).
  • Guhyeshwari Temple - Guhyeshwari Temple, the Temple of Guhyeshwari lies about 1&#;km east of Pashupatinath Temple and is located near the banks of the Bagmati River. The temple name originates from the Sanskrit words Guhya (Secret) and Ishwari (Goddess). In Lalitha Sahasranama the th name of Goddess is mentioned as Guhyarupini (The form of Goddess is beyond human perception and it is secret. Another argument is that it is the secret 16th syllable of the Shodashi Mantra) (LS th verse: Sarasvati shastramayi| Guhaamba guhyaruupini||). It is believed that Sati Devi's corpse's parts fell in different region when Shiva took it and roamed around the world in sorrow.
  • Temple of Pashupatinath - The Temple of Pashupatinath, dedicated to Shiva, stands on an outcrop above the river north of Kathmandu.[4] It is considered to be one of the holy places of Hinduism.[4]
  • Koteshwor Mahadev - Koteshwor Mahadev temple at Koteshwor is also a major holy place located in bank of Bagmati River. According to a popular legend, the Shiva Lingam here is believed to be one of the 64 sacred Shiva Lingams.
  • Shankhamul - Near the Koteshwor Mahadev Temple is a place known as Shankhamul. Shankhamul is one of the twelve “most-sacred” confluences in the Kathmandu valley as defined in the numerous chronicles that document the history and legends about the Kathmandu valley. At Shankhamul, the Bagmati River that flows south from the Pashupati temple complex, and all the rivers that flow from the eastern part of the valley including the Manohara River merge.
  • Kalmochan Temple - Kalmochan temple, dedicated to the Hindu god Lord Vishnu the preserver, was a part of the Thapathali Durbar complex in bank of Bagmati River. It was built in early 18th century outside the walls. Built in Moghul Kathmandu-Gothic architecture style and has Mughal art and Nepali art. Also known as Janga Hiranya Hemnarayan mandir. It is located at kalmochan ghat in Thapathali. It was built by Rana prime minister Jung Bahadur Rana.
  • Tripureshwor Temple - The temple of Tripureshwor Mahadev near the Kalmochan Ghat, is the largest temple in Kathmandu Valley, built by Lalit Tripura Sundari Devi in the nineteenth century (around B.S), it has three roofs—the upper two crafted of metal, while the bottom one is of baked terracota—and sits on a raised platform.[11] The temple was made in the memory of her husband, King Rana Bahadur Shah for his eternal bliss and for the goodwill of her nation. It was probably the last major temple in the tiered style.[12]
  • Pachali Bhairav - It was the Thakuri king Gunakamadev (– A.D.) who established the worship of Pachali Bhairav . The god is very much associated with the founding of Kathmandu, because it was King Gunakamadev who is traditionally believed to have founded both the city and the festival of Bhairav which is located in the bank of Bagmati River.
  • Teku Dovan - One of the 12 sacred Tirthas in the Kathmandu Valley. Ghats are Places for Ritual Bathing and Cremation at or near Rivers. Gyan Tirtha at the Confluence of Bagmati River and Bishnumati River.
  • Sundhari Ghat - Sundhari Ghat is lies in the bank of Bagmati River before Chovar gorge.
  • Jal Binayak Temple - Jal Binayak Temple is a Hindu Temple of Lord Ganesh located in the Chobhar, central part of Kathmandu District, Nepal. The Jal Binayak temple is the most important Ganesh shrine of the central region Kathmandu. It is one of the four Binayak of Kathmandu Valley.

Bagmti River Crossing Also Bihar's Poplur City's And Most Village Saidpur, Rampur, Ratanpura, Rasalpur Baghla & More Villeges Crosing On Thise River Distrt From Darbhanga

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ abcdArticle: नेपाली वास्तु र वास्तुग्रन्थको संक्षिप्त परिचय, Author: Tarananda Mishra
  2. ^Fisher, James F.; et al. (), Living Martyrs: Individuals and Revolution in Nepal, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.&#;, ISBN&#;&#;.
  3. ^ abcdefghDavis (), p.&#;
  4. ^"Map of Kathmandu" United States Department of State,
  5. ^ abKannel & al. (), p.&#;
  6. ^Davis (), p.&#;
  7. ^Bhusal, Jagat K. (May ) "Lessons from the Extreme Floods in South Central Nepal in " International Network of Basin Organizations
  8. ^"Tripureshwor Mahadev Temple".&#;
  9. ^"dfknj.wz.cz".&#;

Bibliography[edit]

  • "Baghmati", Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol.&#;III, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, , p.&#;&#;.
  • Davis, John A. (), "Water Quality Standards for the Bagmati River", Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol.&#;49, No.&#;2, pp.&#;–&#;.
  • Kannel, Prakash Raj; et al. (10 April ), "Application of automated QUAL2Kw for water quality modeling and management in the Bagmati River, Nepal", Ecological Modelling, Vol.&#;, No.&#;, pp.&#;–, doi/dfknj.wz.czdel&#;.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bagmati.
A view of Bagmati River at Sundarijal
View of Bagmati River from Sundarijal, Kathmandu, Nepal
Flood in a Bagmati river at Sundarijal
  1. ^Formerly also written Baghmati.
  2. ^Kholā means "small river" or "creek" in Nepali.