A world shortage of chocolate may be just around the corner, which may come as a surprise as you stack your shopping basket with multi-buy Easter eggs in preparation for the seasonal choc-fest.
Droughts in west Africa - where nearly 70% of the world's cacao beans are grown - combined with our growing taste for dark chocolate, which requires more of the cacao beans that produce cocoa, is leading to increased demand and higher prices. It's a crisis that will be close to the heart of many a young chocoholic, and the chocolate industry itself provides a fruitful and fascinating area of study for many areas of the curriculum, including geography, design and technology, science and even music.
To whet their appetites, ask students to write a diary of the chocolate they eat. Across the world, tastes are changing and we're eating more dark chocolate. A greater awareness of global issues also means we're buying more fair-trade chocolate. Are these trends reflected in their research?
Many of your students will consider themselves chocolate experts so tap into this. Test out their expertise on the "fun" section of the Chocolate Review website where they have to identify chocolate bars from a picture of the cross-section (dfknj.wz.cz).
They'll have strong opinions of the different varieties, so get them to survey their preferences. The Chocolate Review website polls visitors to find out their favourite bars. Compare the findings and encourage them to question their knowledge of chocolate. Do they have brand loyalty? Do they eat fair-trade chocolate? Create some blind taste testings.
They may be experts on the end product, but how much do your students know about the chocolate-making process? A How Stuff Works video demonstrates how beans turn into different types of chocolate (dfknj.wz.cz). The "read" link on the same page gives further information and both sources will help students to write instructions on how to make chocolate.
Growing and trading chocolate
Take students further back in the process to the countries where cacao beans are produced. They grow in countries such as the Ivory Coast, Indonesia and Brazil, covering a narrow geographical zone around the equator. Ask students to find out the top 10 cocoa-producing countries (dfknj.wz.cz). Using a blank world map (eg dfknj.wz.cz), students can colour in the countries, discussing what they have in common.
The industry has become a focus for fair trade and there are some excellent sites that illustrate the issue. The Pa Pa Paa site provides rich and colourful resources on Ghana for KS2 and KS3 (dfknj.wz.cz). Use the "check these out" links on the home page about making chocolate to help younger students write the journey of a chocolate bean from tree to bar. Comprehensive citizenship resources for older students, including the Chocolate Trading Game, can be found at dfknj.wz.cz
The recent bicentenary of the abolition of the slave trade in this country was a disturbing reminder of past inhumanity. How much more disturbing, then, to realise that slavery still exists and may have contributed to our chocolate bars? Show students a film that shows slave labour in the world's biggest single producer of cocoa, the Ivory Coast: dfknj.wz.cz (the section on the Ivory Coast begins 11 minutes into the film).
Ask students to create their own music or poetry to publicise the existence of slavery in the chocolate industry. They can gain inspiration from the "chocolate rappas" competition winners, whose superb songs can be found on the attractive Dubble site (dfknj.wz.cz).
Divine Chocolate, from the same company as Dubble, is the focus for a Design Council case study (dfknj.wz.cz). Encourage students to study the market, then create and explain a design for a new fair-trade chocolate bar.
Alternatively, show students one of the chocolate recipes on Video Jug (dfknj.wz.cz), eg How to make the perfect hot chocolate, and ask them to storyboard the video, ie create rough sketches of each of the main frames of the video. This will help them to appreciate the structure of the film (and the recipe). With students in pairs, ask them to find their own chocolate recipe, to storyboard it, then create their own digital film of the recipe. The results can be edited on Windows Movie Maker or iMovie (Macs). Who knows, you may be nurturing the next Jamie or Nigella!
As they try out the results of their recipe, ask them to consider the effect of chocolate on their bodies. Many claims have been made for this complex substance, including lowering cholesterol, easing hangovers and generally making us feel good. Students can find out more about the science of chocolate, including why chocolate makes us feel good, at dfknj.wz.cz and a lesson plan and attractive resource can be found at ScienceUpd8: dfknj.wz.cz
Key stage 2
Citizenship 2a, 2d, 2h, 2j, 3a;
Design and technology 1a-d, 2a-f;
English (En1) 1a-f, 2a-e; (En2) 2a-d, 3a-g; (En3) 1a-e;
Geography 1a, 1c, 2a, 2c-d, 2f, 3a-d;
Music 1a-c, 2a-b 4c-d;
Science (Sc1) 2a-b; (Sc2) 2a, 2g
Key stage 3
Citizenship 1a, 1f, 1i, 2a-c, 3a;
Design and technology 1a-h, 2a-e;
English (En1) 1a-g, 2a-f; (En2) 1a-f, 4a-d, 5a-d; (En3) 1a-o;
Geography 1a, 2a, 2c-d, 2f, 3a-b, 2e;
Music 1a-c, 2a-b, 3b-c;
Science (Sc1) 2a; (Sc2) 2a-c
Key stage 4Citizenship 1a, 1e-j, 2a-c 3a-c;
Design and technology 1a-g, 2a-c;
English (En1) 1a-g, 2a-f; (En2) 1a-f, 4a-d, 5a-d; (En3) 1a-o;
Science single (Sc1) 2a; (Sc2) 2a; double (Sc1) 2a; (Sc2) 2a
English language (levels C-F);
Environmental studies: society, science and technology (levels C-F);
Expressive arts (levels C-F)
Chocolate often originates from the hands of children working as slaves. In Côte D’Ivoire and other cocoa-producing countries, an estimated , children labor in the fields, many against their will. Action taken now demands that Hershey Raise the Bar on their fair trade labor practices, which led to them declaring that they will buy only from certified sources by
Cocoa farmers´ low income leads to serious violations of human and labour rights on cocoa farms. Farmers cannot pay sufficient salaries to the workers and provide them with acceptable accommodation and health care. Furthermore, workers and farmers are often exposed to hazardous working conditions: they handle pesticides without protective clothing, work with dangerous tools and have excessive working hours. They face gender and ethnic discrimination and suffer from poor nutrition. Fair trade certified chocolate can help solve these problems. Photo from European Campaign for Fair Chocolate.
The Human Cost of Chocolate
Hershey, the USA’s largest and most iconic chocolate company, sources much of its cocoa from West Africa, where 70 percent of the worlds cocoa comes from and where child labor is epidemic. They have agreed to buying percent of their cocoa from certified sources by
Currently, less than five percent of the world’s cocoa supply is from certified sources.
We look at a Danish documentary on the subject as well as a CNN Report and finally the Time to Raise the Bar, Hershey Report by Global Exchange, GreenAmerica and the International Labor Rights Forum.
The Dark Side of Chocolate, Directed by award winning Danish journalist Miki Mistrati and U. Roberto Romano
The Cocoa Protocol
Ten years ago, U.S. Rep. Eliot Engel, D-New York, and Sen. Tom Harkin, D-Iowa, introduced legislation mandating a labeling system for chocolate. After the industry raised concerns, a compromise was reached that required chocolate companies to voluntarily certify they had stopped the practice of child labor. The certification process would not involve labeling products child-labor-free, as initially proposed.
Instead, it calls for public reporting by African governments, establishment of an audit system and poverty remediation by The deadline had to be extended to (read Fortune Magazines report on the state of the protocol in ) and again to Today, many aid groups say some of the provisions have still not been met.
Ending Child Labor in the Cocoa Industry
Some 70 to 75 percent of the worlds cocoa beans are grown on small farms in West Africa, including the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Cameroon, and Nigeria, according to the World Cocoa Foundation and the International Cocoa Initiative. Despite implementation of the Cocoa Protocol, the U.S. State Department estimates more than , children are involved in the worst forms of child labor on cocoa farms throughout the Ivory Coast and Ghana. Some are the children of cocoa farmers but many are smuggled into Ivory Coast from Mali and Burkina Faso to work on cocoa plantations, according to the International Labor Rights Forum.
Italian chocolate maker Ferrero has also pledged to eradicate slavery from farms where it sources its cocoa by , as part of a growing movement by the multi-billion dollar industry to clean up its supply chains.
Limitations of the Cocoa Protocol. Voluntary certification has not been proven to stop abuses labor practices. In addition, Ivory Coast has had further economic problems following its civil war from to Chocolate exporters and manufacturers say the war and its aftermath have hampered their efforts to eradicate child labor. Nevertheless, a reputable, independent, third party certification can ensure that a process is in place to identify and remediate labor rights abuses. For cocoa, the strongest certification system currently available is fair trade.
Honestly, its hard to see anybody saying that this protocol has attained the goals that were set out in it, said Judy Gearhart, executive director of the International Labor Rights Forum in the CNN report. Chris Bayer, a Tulane University researcher, spent five years in the Ivory Coast and Ghana monitoring the protocols plan and studying the scope of the problem. Unfortunately, over the last 10 years we have seen very little implementation of the actual commitments, he said. Industry did not live up to the Harkin-Engel protocol. The issues are systemic. Children are still working.
The International Cocoa Initiative was set up by the protocol to bring all parties together to address the worst forms of child labor in the supply chain. The ICI board has representatives from the major cocoa processors and chocolate manufacturers. It says progress is being made.
Five of the six commitments made in the protocol have been completed, the group said in an e-mail statement. And governments of cocoa producing countries, ILO, the OECD, independent foundations, members of the cocoa supply chain and ICI itself are ACTIVELY working on the sixth commitment to improve the livelihoods of cocoa growers the infrastructure in cocoa communities farmers organizations, educational facilities etc. Substantial funds are being expended on these activities.
Clearly, more work needs to be done on the issue.
Raise the Bar, Hershey
The release of Time to Raise the Bar: The Real Corporate Social Responsibility Report for the Hershey Company on September 13th, highlighted Hershey’s failure to address instances of child labor in its supply chain. Ten years after the problem of exploitive child labor on West African cocoa farms was brought to the attention of the public in the United States and chocolate companies pledged to eliminate these abuses, Hershey has not done enough to stop child labor.
One problem with Hershey’s announcement: the company did not specify what type of certification it will obtain for the cocoa. Instead, they stated the certified cocoa will be “be verified through independent auditors to assure that it is grown in line with the highest internationally recognized standards for labor, environmental and better farming practices.” If Hershey’s is serious about stopping child labor on cocoa farms in West Africa, then the certification it seeks for its products will be fair trade.
The coalition of organizations that released the report called on Hershey to:
- Take immediate action to eliminate forced and child labor from its supply chain;
- Commit to sourcing % fair trade certified cocoa beans by for at least one of its five top-selling chocolate bars;
- Commit to making at least one additional five top-selling bar % fair trade certified every two years thereafter, so that Hershey’s five top-selling cocoa bars will all be % fair trade certified within ten years;
- Commit that the majority of Hershey’s cocoa across all products will be fair trade certified by
In March , a research team from the Payson Center for International Development at Tulane University, under a contract from the US Department of Labor (DOL), issued a report stating that one of the most effective ways to eliminate forced and child labor in cocoa production is through the use of product certified cocoa, like fair trade. Committing to fair trade certified cocoa would enable Hershey to ensure its suppliers undergo a rigorous review by independent monitors, who check for cases of forced and/or child labor and ensure producers earn a decent price for their cocoa.
Several large food corporations, including many of Hershey’s closest competitors, made significant commitments to fair trade and other certification systems in the past decade and are taking steps to eliminate child labor from their supply chains.
Abuses in the US by Hershey
Democracy Now!recently reported on the case of foreign students in the United States as part of a work-study program and found themselves engaged in what they refer to as captive labor at a Hershey’s packing plant in Palmyra, Pennsylvania.
The students — from Eastern Europe and Asia — went on strike in August of , after reportedly required to lift heavy boxes, work eight-hour shifts beginning at 11 p.m., and stand for long periods of time while packing candy on a fast-moving production line. Federal agencies have launched four investigations into the alleged exploitation.
The walkout apparently marks the first time that foreign students have engaged in a strike to protest their employment. The guest workers are demanding a return of the $3, to $6, each student paid for the cultural exchange program to work at Hershey, that Hershey end exploitation of J-1 student cultural exchange workers, and that the jobs the guest workers filled instead be given to local workers paid a living wage.
Adapted From the CNN Freedom Project and Raise the Bar, Hershey