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Essay And Travelogues

Visual Anthropology 15, no. 1 (January-March, ),

"To Travel is to Possess the World"

The cinema remains a machine for constructing relations of space and time; the exploration of the social world through images and sounds of travel has always been one of its principal functions. This special issue of Visual Anthropology focuses on the travelogue, a genre of film that flourished during the early cinema period from , played an important role in the consolidation of documentary and ethnographic film and continues to this day in IMAX theaters, on broadcast and cable television. For generations, audiences around the world have learned about other cultures through travelogues.

While travel writing has lately come under intense scrutiny, very little has been written about the travelogue film experience. "Travelogues and Travel Films" expands the current agenda of visual studies to bring into analytical view a vast body of films overlooked by historians and film scholars. The essays included here draw on extensive primary research on a variety of cinematic forms: amateur movies, illustrated lecture films, independent documentaries, popular television shows, and ethnographic films. They examine the role of travel imagery in the narrative economy of the cinema while simultaneously considering how travel films construct cultural realities.

The f ilm scholar Dana Benelli explores the role of travelogue imagery in Hollywood and how our understanding of the norms of classical Hollywood cinema should be redefined and expanded to include the ways in which spectacular travel footage divert and even interrupt classical narration. Anthropologist Joyce Hammond considers the re-appropriation of tropes of travel and the American road movie by independent documentarists Ellen Spiro in Greetings from Out Here and Renee Tajima-Peña in My America, or Honk if You Love Buddha, filmmakers who provide alternative representations of gays and Asian-Americans in a re-imagined American landscape. Historian Amy Staples rediscovers the films of the once celebrated, but now-forgotten, explorer-adventurer Lewis Cotlow as an example of the popular ethnographic imaginary of mid-century America. After these essays exploring U.S. travelogue production, anthropologist Lindsey Powell considers several current popular Japanese TV programs with highly problematic representations of so-called "primitive peoples," who engage in cultural exchanges with Japanese families. Film scholar Alexandra Schneider provides a close analysis of a s Swiss amateur film of a trip to the mountains that brings back 16mm images of farmers and domestic animals as trophies of urban tourism. My own contribution looks at the 16mm illustrated travel lecture industry as it currently exists in the U.S. Finally, as encouragement for further research on travelogues, Daisy Njoku of the Smithsonian Institution


2

has kindly put together an annotated resource guide to North American archives of travel film materials.

Although the travelogue is a staple of motion pictures, its importance is not reflected in the literature of these fields. While individual chapters of interest have appeared in Fatimah Rony's The Third Eye (), Lynne Kirby's Parallel Tracks (), and Cynthia Erb's Tracking King Kong (), there is only one book in print on the subject, Charles Musser and Carol Nelson's High-Class Moving Pictures: Lyman H. Howe and the Forgotten Era of Traveling Exhibition (). This special issue of Visual Anthropology attempts to address this gap in these fields, while tracing the intersection of technology and ideology in cinematic representations of travel and cultural difference. It should prove of interest to film and media scholars as well as anthropologists and sociologists. The lists of references, which appear at the end of each essay, should provide a good cumulative guide to past and current research on travelogues.

Jeffrey Ruoff
Dartmouth College, July,

REFERENCES

Erb, Cynthia
Tracking King Kong: A Hollywood Icon in World Culture. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Kirby, Lynne
Parallel Tracks: The Railroad and Silent Cinema. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Musser, Charles, and Carol Nelson
High-Class Moving Pictures: Lyman H. Howe and the Forgotten Era of Traveling Exhibition, . Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Rony, Fatimah Tobing
The Third Eye: Race, Cinema, and Ethnographic Spectacle. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

"Travel book" redirects here. For a listing of places to see at a destination, see Guide book.

The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs.[1]

One early travel memoirist in Western literature was Pausanias, a Greek geographer of the 2nd century AD. In the early modern period, James Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides () helped shape travel memoir as a genre.

History[edit]

Further information: The Travels of Marco Polo

Early examples of travel literature include Pausanias' Description of Greece in the 2nd century CE, the Journey Through Wales () and Description of Wales () by Gerald of Wales, and the travel journals of Ibn Jubayr (–) and Ibn Batutta (–), both of whom recorded their travels across the known world in detail. The travel genre was a fairly common genre in medieval Arabic literature.[2]

Travel literature became popular during the Song Dynasty (–) of medieval China.[3] The genre was called 'travel record literature' (youji wenxue), and was often written in narrative, prose, essay and diary style.[4] Travel literature authors such as Fan Chengda (–) and Xu Xiake (–) incorporated a wealth of geographical and topographical information into their writing, while the 'daytrip essay' Record of Stone Bell Mountain by the noted poet and statesman Su Shi (–) presented a philosophical and moral argument as its central purpose.[5]

One of the earliest known records of taking pleasure in travel, of travelling for the sake of travel and writing about it, is Petrarch's (–) ascent of Mount Ventoux in He states that he went to the mountaintop for the pleasure of seeing the top of the famous height. His companions who stayed at the bottom he called frigida incuriositas ("a cold lack of curiosity"). He then wrote about his climb, making allegorical comparisons between climbing the mountain and his own moral progress in life.

Michault Taillevent, a poet for the Duke of Burgundy, travelled through the Jura Mountains in and recorded his personal reflections, his horrified reaction to the sheer rock faces, and the terrifying thunderous cascades of mountain streams.[6]Antoine de la Sale (c. –c. ), author of Petit Jehan de Saintre, climbed to the crater of a volcano in the Lipari Islands in , leaving us with his impressions. "Councils of mad youth" were his stated reasons for going. In the midth century, Gilles le Bouvier, in his Livre de la description des pays, gave us his reason to travel and write:

Because many people of diverse nations and countries delight and take pleasure, as I have done in times past, in seeing the world and things therein, and also because many wish to know without going there, and others wish to see, go, and travel, I have begun this little book.

In , Richard Hakluyt (c. –) published Voyages, a foundational text of the travel literature genre.

In the 18th Century, travel literature was commonly known as the book of travels, which mainly consisted of maritime diaries.[7] In 18th century Britain, almost every famous writer worked in the travel literature form.[8]Captain James Cook's diaries () were the equivalent of today's best sellers[9]Alexander von Humboldt's Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of America, during the years , originally published in French, was translated to multiple languages and influenced later naturalists, including Charles Darwin.

Other later examples of travel literature include accounts of the Grand Tour. Aristocrats, clergy, and others with money and leisure time travelled Europe to learn about the art and architecture of its past. One tourism literature pioneer was Robert Louis Stevenson (–), with An Inland Voyage (), and Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes () about his travels in the Cévennes, (France), is among the first popular books to present hiking and camping as recreational activities, and tells of commissioning one of the first sleeping bags.[10][11][12][13] A very popular subgenre of travel literature started to emerge[when?] in the form of narratives of exploration, a still unexplored source for colonial and postcolonial studies.[14]

Travel books[edit]

Further information: List of travel books

Travel books come in style from the documentary, to the literary, as well as the journalistic, and from the humorous to the serious. They are often associated with tourism and include guide books, Travel writing may be found on web sites, in periodicals, and in books. It has been produced by a variety of writers, including travelers, military officers, missionaries, explorers, scientists, pilgrims, social and physical scientists, educators, and migrants. Englishman Eric Newby,[15] the Americans Bill Bryson, and Paul Theroux, and Welsh author Jan Morris are or were widely acclaimed as travel writers. Bill Bryson in he won the Golden Eagle Award from the Outdoor Writers and Photographers Guild.[16] On 22 November , Durham University officially renamed the Main Library the Bill Bryson Library for his contributions as the university's 11th chancellor (–11).[17][18] Paul Theroux was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for his novel The Mosquito Coast, which was adapted for the movie of the same name. He was also awarded in the Thomas Cook Travel Book Award for Riding the Iron Rooster. In , Jan Morris was awarded the Golden PEN Award by English PEN for "a Lifetime's Distinguished Service to Literature".[19][20]

Travel literature often intersects with essay writing, as in V. S. Naipaul's India: A Wounded Civilization (), whose trip became the occasion for extended observations on a nation and people. This is similarly the case in Rebecca West's work on Yugoslavia, Black Lamb and Grey Falcon ().[21]

Sometimes a writer will settle into a locality for an extended period, absorbing a sense of place while continuing to observe with a travel writer's sensibility. Examples of such writings include Lawrence Durrell's Bitter Lemons (), Deborah Tall's The Island of the White Cow: Memories of an Irish Island (),[22] and Peter Mayle's best-selling A Year in Provence () and its sequels.

Travel and nature writing merge in many of the works by Sally Carrighar, Gerald Durrell and Ivan T. Sanderson. Sally Carrighar's works include One Day at Teton Marsh (), Home to the Wilderness (), and Wild Heritage (). Gerald Durrell's My Family and Other Animals () is an autobiographical work by the British naturalist. It tells of the years that he lived as a child with his siblings and widowed mother on the Greek island of Corfu between and It describes the life of the Durrell family in a humorous manner, and explores the fauna of the island. It is the first and most well-known of Durrell's 'Corfu trilogy', together with Birds, Beasts, and Relatives and The Garden of the Gods (). Ivan T. Sanderson published: Animal Treasure, a report of an expedition to the jungles of then-British West Africa; Caribbean Treasure, an account of an expedition to Trinidad, Haiti, and Surinam, begun in late and ending in late ; and Living Treasure, an account of an expedition to Jamaica, British Honduras (now Belize) and the Yucatan. These authors are naturalists, who write in support of their fields of study. Another naturalist, Charles Darwin, wrote his famous account of the journey of HMS Beagle at the intersection of science, natural history and travel.[23]

A number of writers famous in another field have written about their travel experiences. Examples are Samuel Johnson's A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (); Charles Dickens' American Notes for General Circulation (); Mary Wollstonecraft's Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (); Hilaire Belloc's The Path To Rome (); D. H. Lawrence's Twilight in Italy and Other Essays (); Mornings in Mexico and Other Essays (); Rebecca West's Black Lamb and Grey Falcon (); and John Steinbeck's Travels with Charley: In Search of America ().[24]

Adventure literature[edit]

In the world of sailing Joshua Slocum's Sailing Alone Around the World () is a classic of outdoor adventure literature.[25] In April , Joshua Slocum set sail from Boston, Massachusetts and in Sailing Alone Around the World,[26] he described his departure in the following manner:

I had resolved on a voyage around the world, and as the wind on the morning of April 24, was fair, at noon I weighed anchor, set sail, and filled away from Boston, where the Spray had been moored snugly all winter. […] A thrilling pulse beat high in me. My step was light on deck in the crisp air. I felt there could be no turning back, and that I was engaging in an adventure the meaning of which I thoroughly understood.

More than three years later, on June 27, , Slocum returned to Newport, Rhode Island, having circumnavigated the world.

Guide books[edit]

Main article: Guide book

A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place, designed for the use of visitors or tourists".[27] An early example is Thomas West's guide to the Lake District, published in [28]Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of In the introduction he wrote that he aimed:

to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide; and for that purpose, the writer has here collected and laid before him, all the select stations and points of view, noticed by those authors who have last made the tour of the lakes, verified by his own repeated observations.[29]

To this end he included various 'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to appreciate the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities.[30] Published in the book was a major success.[31]

It will usually include full details relating to accommodation, restaurants, transportation, and activities. Maps of varying detail and historical and cultural information are also often included. Different kinds of guide books exist, focusing on different aspects of travel, from adventure travel to relaxation, or aimed at travelers with different incomes, or focusing on sexual orientation or types of diet. Travel guides can also take the form of travel websites.

Travel journals[edit]

A travel journal, also called road journal, is a record made by a traveller, sometimes in diary form, of the traveler's experiences, written during the course of the journey and later edited for publication. This is a long-established literary format; an early example is the writing of Pausanias (2nd century AD) who produced his Description of Greece based on his own observations. James Boswell published his The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides in and Goethe published his Italian Journey, based on diaries, in Fannie Calderón de la Barca, the Scottish-born wife of the Spanish ambassador to Mexico , wrote Life in Mexico, an important travel narrative of her time there, with many observations of local life. A British traveller, Mrs Alec Tweedie, published a number of travelogues, ranging from Denmark () and Finland (), to the U.S. (), several on Mexico (, , ), and one on Russia, Siberia, and China (). A more recent example is Che Guevara's The Motorcycle Diaries. A travelogue is a film, book written up from a travel diary, or illustrated talk describing the experiences of and places visited by traveller.[32] American writer Paul Theroux has published many works of travel literature, the first success being The Great Railway Bazaar. Anglo-American Bill Bryson is known for A Walk in the Woods, made into a Hollywood film.[33]

Fiction[edit]

Some fictional travel stories are related to travel literature. Although it may be desirable in some contexts to distinguish fictional from non-fictional works, such distinctions have proved notoriously difficult to make in practice, as in the famous instance of the travel writings of Marco Polo or John Mandeville. Examples of fictional works of travel literature based on actual journeys are:

Travel blogs[edit]

In the 21st century, travel literature became a genre of social media in the form of travel blogs, with travel bloggers using outlets like personal blogs, Pinterest, Twitter, and Instagram to convey information about their adventures, and provide advice for navigating particular countries, or for traveling generally.[38] Travel blogs were among the first instances of blogging, which began in the mid s.[38]

Scholarship[edit]

The systematic study of travel literature emerged as a field of scholarly inquiry in the mids, with its own conferences, organizations, journals, monographs, anthologies, and encyclopedias. Important, pre monographs are: Abroad () by Paul Fussell, an exploration of British interwar travel writing as escapism; Gone Primitive: Modern Intellects, Savage Minds () by Marianna Torgovnick, an inquiry into the primitivist presentations of foreign cultures; Haunted Journeys: Desire and Transgression in European Travel Writing () by Dennis Porter, a close look at the psychological correlatives of travel; Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women’s Travel Writing by Sara Mills, an inquiry into the intersection of gender and colonialism during the 19th century; Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation (), Mary Louise Pratt's influential study of Victorian travel writing’s dissemination of a colonial mind-set; and Belated Travelers (), an analysis of colonial anxiety by Ali Behdad.[39][citation needed]

Disrupting the assumptions of traditional travel writing, Amitav Ghosh’s In an Antique Land[40] may be regarded as an example of "counter travel narrative," reversing the "roles of traveller and local, viewing the present as contextualized by the colonial and precolonial past, and eschewing definitive authorial authority [in] a powerful rebuttal to the ideology of the traditional travel text."[41]

Travel awards[edit]

Prizes awarded annually for travel books have included the Thomas Cook Travel Book Award, which ran from to , the Boardman Tasker Prize for Mountain Literature, and the Dolman Best Travel Book Award, which began in The North American Travel Journalists Association holds an annual awards competition honoring travel journalism in a multitude of categories, ranging across print and online media.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Cuddon, J. A. (). The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. London: Penguin Books. p.&#;&#;
  2. ^El-Shihibi, Fathi A. (). Travel Genre in Arabic Literature: A Selective Literary and Historical Study (Originally presented as the author's thesis (dfknj.wz.czn University, )). Boca Raton, Fla: dfknj.wz.cz ISBN&#;&#;
  3. ^Hargett , p.
  4. ^Hargett , pp. 67–
  5. ^Hargett , pp. 74–
  6. ^Deschaux, Robert; Taillevent, Michault (). Un poète bourguignon du XVe siècle, Michault Taillevent: édition et étude. Librairie Droz. pp.&#;31–&#;
  7. ^Stolley , p.
  8. ^Fussell , p.
  9. ^Glyndwr Williams, Captain Cook's Voyages: –. London: The Folio Society, , p. xxxii.
  10. ^Adkins, Barbara; Eryn Grant. "Backpackers as a Community of Strangers: The Interaction Order of an Online Backpacker Notice Board"(PDF). Qualitative Sociology Review. 3 (2): – Retrieved December 18, &#;
  11. ^"Global Grasshopper Travels". Archived from the original on October 22, Retrieved December 18, &#;
  12. ^Travel with a Donkey in the Cevennes (); Re the first sleeping bag in [1]
  13. ^"The Inventor of Traveling - The First Backpacker in the World?". Archived from the original on 12 December Retrieved December 18, &#;
  14. ^F. Regard, British Narratives of Exploration: Case Studies of the Self and Other, London, Pickering and Chatto,
  15. ^Margalit Fox, "Eric Newby, 86, Acclaimed British Travel Writer, Dies", The New York Times, 24 october
  16. ^dfknj.wz.cz
  17. ^"The Main Library is being renamed 'The Bill Bryson Library'!". Durham University. Retrieved &#;
  18. ^"Bill Bryson Library renaming event, Tuesday 27 November ". Durham University. &#;
  19. ^"Golden Pen Award, official website". English PEN. Retrieved 3 December &#;
  20. ^Gillian Fenwick (). "Chronology". Traveling Genius: The Writing Life of Jan Morris. Univ of South Carolina Press. p.&#;XX. Retrieved 3 December &#;
  21. ^West, Rebecca, intr. Geoff Dyer, (). Black Lamb and Grey Falcon: A Journey Through Yugoslavia. Edinburgh.
  22. ^Bonnie Gross, "'White Cow` Absorbing Account Of Irish Island The Island Of The White Cow: Memories Of An Irish Island. By Deborah Tall". March 2, , News/Sun-Sentinel.
  23. ^"Review of Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle between the Years and & Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the various Countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle ". The Quarterly Review. – December
  24. ^"Sorry, Charley", Bill Steigerwald, Reason, April "A Reality Check for Steinbeck and Charley", Charles McGrath, New York Times, April 3,
  25. ^Joshua Slocum Society: [2].
  26. ^Slocum (), Sailing Alone Around the World
  27. ^New Oxford American Dictionary
  28. ^Thomas West, () []. A Guide to the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire. Kendal: W. Pennington.
  29. ^West. A Guide to the Lakes. p.&#;2.&#;
  30. ^"Development of tourism in the Lake District National Park". Lake District UK. Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved &#;
  31. ^"Understanding the National Park — Viewing Stations". Lake District National Park Authority. Archived from the original on Retrieved &#;
  32. ^New Oxford American Dictionary.
  33. ^McNary, Dave (April 8, ). "'99 Homes,' 'A Walk in the Woods' Set for September Releases". dfknj.wz.cz. Retrieved April 9, &#;
  34. ^Conrad, Joseph & Zdzisław Najder (Editor) (). The Congo Diary and Other Uncollected Pieces.&#;
  35. ^FinkelFinkel, Michael (August ). "Kira Salek: The White Mary". National Geographic Adventure. Retrieved 12 November &#;
  36. ^Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. (26 July ). "Imaginary Journey". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 November &#;
  37. ^"The White Mary: A Novel". dfknj.wz.cz. ISBN&#;&#;
  38. ^ abF. Hanusch, E. Fürsich, Travel Journalism: Exploring Production, Impact and Culture (), p.
  39. ^Behdad, Ali (). Belated travelers&#;: orientalism in the age of colonial dissolution. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  40. ^Ghosh, Amitav (). In an antique land. New York. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  41. ^McParland, Liam (). "Egypt, India, ideology: In an antique land as a rebuttal to the traditional travel text" – via VIUSpace.&#;
  42. ^Leon, Yanira. "Competition Rules and Guidelines". dfknj.wz.cz. Retrieved &#;

Bibliography[edit]

  • Adams, Percy G., ed. (). Travel Literature Through the Ages: An Anthology. New York and London: Garland. ISBN&#;&#;
  • Adams, Percy G. (). Travel Literature and the Evolution of the Novel. Lexington: University press of Kentucky. ISBN&#;&#;
  • Barclay, Jennifer and Logan, Amy (). AWOL: Tales for Travel-Inspired Minds: Random House of Canada. ISBN&#;
  • Batten, Charles Lynn (). Pleasurable Instruction: Form and Convention in Eighteenth-Century Travel Literature. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  • Chaney, Edward (). The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations Since the Renaissance. London: Frank Cass. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  • Chatzipanagioti-Sangmeister, Julia (). Griechenland, Zypern, Balkan und Levante: eine kommentierte Bibliographie der Reiseliteratur des Jahrhunderts (in German). Eutin: Lumpeter and Lasel. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  • Cox, Edward Godfrey (). A Reference Guide To The Literature Of Travel. Including Voyages, Geographical Descriptions, Adventures, Shipwrecks and Expeditions. Seattle: University of Washington.&#;Vol. 1
  • Diekmann, Anya and Hannam, Kevin (). Beyond Backpacker Tourism: Mobilities and Experiences: Channel View Publications. ISBN&#;
  • Fussell, Paul (). "Patrick Brydone: The Eighteenth-Century Traveler As Representative Man". Literature As a Mode of Travel. New York: New York Public Library. pp.&#;53– OCLC&#;&#;
  • Hargett, James M. (). "Some Preliminary Remarks on the Travel Records of the Song Dynasty ()". Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews. 7 (1/2): 67– doi/ JSTOR&#;&#;
  • Speake, Jennifer (). Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  • Stolley, Karen (). El lazarillo de ciegos caminantes: un itinerario crítico (in Spanish). Hanover, NH: Ediciones del Norte. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  • Batten, Charles Lynn (). Pleasurable Instruction: Form and Convention in Eighteenth-Century Travel Literature. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  • Chaney, Edward (). The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations Since the Renaissance. London: Frank Cass. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  • Chatzipanagioti-Sangmeister, Julia (). Griechenland, Zypern, Balkan und Levante: eine kommentierte Bibliographie der Reiseliteratur des Jahrhunderts (in German). Eutin: Lumpeter and Lasel. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  • Cox, Edward Godfrey (–). A Reference Guide To The Literature Of Travel. Including Voyages, Geographical Descriptions, Adventures, Shipwrecks and Expeditions. 1–3. Seattle: University of Washington – via Hathi Trust.&#;; also Vol. 1 via Internet Archive
  • Fussell, Paul (). "Patrick Brydone: The Eighteenth-Century Traveler As Representative Man". Literature As a Mode of Travel. New York: New York Public Library. pp.&#;53– OCLC&#;&#;
  • Hargett, James M. (). "Some Preliminary Remarks on the Travel Records of the Song Dynasty ()". Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews. 7 (1/2): 67– doi/ JSTOR&#;&#;
  • William Thomas Lowndes (). "Voyages and Travels". In Henry G. Bohn. Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature. 5. London: Bell and Daldy.&#;
  • Speake, Jennifer (). Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;
  • Stolley, Karen (). El lazarillo de ciegos caminantes: un itinerario crítico (in Spanish). Hanover, NH: Ediciones del Norte. ISBN&#; OCLC&#;&#;

Further reading[edit]

  • "Essay on travel literature". The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, (–).&#;
  • Bangs, Jeremy D. "The Travels of Elkanah Watson" (McFarland & Company, )
  • Beautiful England (series of travel books from to s)
  • Lawless, Jill (). Wild East: Travels in the New Mongolia. ECW Press. ISBN&#;
  • *Picador Travel Classics
  • Roy, Pinaki. “Reflections on the Art of Producing Travelogues”. Images of Life: Creative and Other Forms of Writing. Ed. Mullick, S. Kolkata: The Book World, (ISBN&#;). pp.&#;–
  • Salzani, Carlo & Tötösy de Zepetnek, Steven. "Bibliography for Work in Travel Studies." CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture (Library) (–).
  • Thompson, Carl (). Travel Writing. Routledge. ISBN&#;

External links[edit]

Look up itinerary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Goethe's Italian Journey between September and May