Digital Storytelling in the Classroom: New Media Pathways to Literacy, Learning and Creativity. Learn more about Jason's book about digital storytelling and new media narrative in education. Read reviews, peruse the table of contents, or purchase the book. Would you like your copy "signed at a distance?" Then contact us to receive a bookplate you can add to the inside cover.
Orchestrating the Media Collage. This article appeared in the Feb-March 2009 issue of Educational Literacy, and addresses the many skills we need to be literate in the digital age, including the ability to tell effective stories.
Part IV - Assessing digital stories, new media narrative
Much of this information comes from Chapter Four of Digital Storytelling in the Classroom: New Media Pathways to Literacy, Learning and Creativity.
However, also included on this site are rubrics created by teachers and students I have worked with over the years.
Remember - the most important aspect of a rubric is your ability to explain it to others, especially to yours students. Feel free to use any of the rubric material you find here, but I recommend you personalize it so it makes complete sense to you.
Before developing your rubric, first consider:
- Set clear goals. While I appreciate that this sounds like something Capt. Obvious would say, this is particulalry important when it comes to student new media projects for the following simple reason. When students prepare written work you can always judge the quality of their writing, whether you know much about the subject or not. But when students prepare new media like digital stories, this fallback position vanishes because most teachers don't feel comfortable assessing new media narrative. This is understandable, given that many teachers have created little new media themselves, and certainly weren't taught how to assess it in their teacher education programs. So, the only fallback position available to them becomes: did students meet the goals of the project?
- Assess everything. The final story is the tip of the iceberg. Preparing a digital story involves writing, creating artwork, preparing planning documents, and a number of other activities that produce tangible, assessable artifacts that address a number of intelligences, literacies and skill areas. A digital story is literally a portfolio unto itself. Try to assess as much of the formative work as you can.
- Assess the process. Did students plan well? Work in groups well? Much of what is transferrable from digital storytelling to other activities, media and non-media based, centers on planning skills.
- Include self-assessment and peer review. Include these whenever possible and appropriate. Media development relies on risk taking and honest self-assessment of the outcome. It also relies on a community of learners sharing their skills and insights.
With this in mind, consider the following possible assessment traits. References to Part I, II and III here refer to the book from which this was excerpted, Digital Storytelling in the Classroom: New Media Pathways to Literacy, Learning and Creativity. This lists covers many but by no means all of the areas of a digital story.
Focus on a few, typically three to six traits. Typically I have students develop rubrics with no more than five traits. More than this and the rubric becomes impractical within a classroom context of many students producing many digital stories. While my students are free to draw on the list below, many come up with their own traits, or with ways of describing the traits below in their own words. Directly following this list is an example produced by a teacher recently that I consider concise and very useful.
List of possible digital story evaluation traits
How well did the story work? This trait can address structure, engagement, character transformation or any of the other qualities of story discussed in Part II. In fact, an entire rubric can be devoted to evaluating the quality
Is there evidence of solid planning, in the form of story maps, scripts, storyboards, etc.?
Media Development Process
How well did the student follow the media development process covered in Part III?
Was the studentâs project well researched and documented?
How well did the student meet the academic goals of the assignment and convey an understanding of the material addressed?
Did you require stories to be under two minutes, use no more than 10 images and 30 seconds of music and provide citations in MLA format? Whatever your criteria, be clear and stick to them.
What was the quality of the studentâs written work exhibited in the planning documents, research, etc.?
Originality, voice, creativity
How creative was the production? Did the student exhibit an original sense of voice and a fresh perspective?
Was the information presented through the story sifted, prioritized and told without bird walking or detours, as described in Part III?
Flow, organization and pacing
Was the story well organized? Did it flow well, moving from part to part without bumps or disorientation, as described in Part III?
Presentation and performance
How effective was the studentâs actual presentation or performance? This includes burning a DVD, posting the story on the Web site effectively, performing it before an audience, or whatever the assignment required.
Sense of audience
How well did the story respect the needs of the audience?
Was the use of media appropriate, supportive of the story, balanced and well considered?
How âbumpyâ was the story? Media grammar and its relation to âbumps and squintsâ are described in Part III. There are many facets of media grammar, and you may want to choose a few to focus on.
Has everything that is not original been credited, as described in Part III? Have permissions been obtained where necessary? Do citations appear in the format required by the project?
Table 4.1: Digital Story Assessment Traits
Basic assessments Areas
Short list of basic assessment traits
Often, your standards are just fine.
Story core clear, articulated, compelling?
Research clear, thorough, integrated (rather than listed)?
Command of the media?
Mechanics of media observed?
Met assignment criteria?
Length, number of elements, audience consideration (poem vs. essay) etc.?
Voice, creativity, originality?
Length, number of elements, audience consideration (poem vs. essay) etc.?
Example 1. Here is an example of a digital storytelling rubric developed by one of my students. It is concise, articulate and useful. Note: This rubric calls for teacher assessment and self-assessment:
Example of selective story traits
Was it a quality story that made listeners lean forward and wonder what was going to happen next? Did it flow, without bird walks or bumps? If audience members had to work to understand it, was it worth their effort?
Was the story neat, clean and complete? Was it crafted with care?
Problem solving and innovation
Is the story original and told with a sense of personal voice? Did the student overcome problems and obstacles to pursue their story?
Did the student take the time s/he needed to develop his or her ideas? Did s/he use class time wisely?
Example 2. Here is an example developed by Davis Arts to be used to judge a digital storytelling contest. (Download the original.)
For advisors who are helping students
Student is interested and engaged in working, uses his or her time wisely, and works appropriately with others.
Student used a story map, board or other planning method that helped him or her think about how he or she would tell his or her story. Student sought feedback and thought critically about how to improve his or her story.
Student thoughtfully explained how and why he or she chose to create his or her story. His or her answers to the questions are thorough, organized and creative.
For outside reviewers
Student used images to creatively tell the story behind the words. Student uses his or her natural speaking voice, as well as music (optional) and effects (optional) to support (without taking away from) the meaning of his or her story.
Student tells a PERSONAL STORY about an object, person, event or place that profoundly impacted him or her or someone he or she knows. Student's digital story articulates a clear message and tells a compelling and engaging story the view connects to emotionally.
Ann Stone's Rubric, 1/2009
Persuasiveness, Purpose, Content
Titles and Credits
Persuasiveness/Visceral Reaction /15 pts.
Title /10 pts.
Alignment and integration of media sources: music, images, sound effects, voice over /15 pts.
Clear Purpose - What is this film about? /15 pts.
Credits Creator/s /5 pts.
Consistent narrative: Is your story told through text, images, or music? /15 pts.
Strong Contrast - The difference is clear, clean and compelling /15 pts.
Cite sources for photos /5 pts.
Cite source for music /5 pts.
Overall grade: 100 pts.
Here are other examples of DST rubrics:
A Media Grammar Primer
What is media grammar? "It's the term I use to describe the run-ons, fragments and other "grammatical infractions" that impede clear communication in a digital story."
Media grammar was developed with content area teachers in mind, and assumes teachers are not necessarily media savvy. Thus, it does not address the finer points, or the high end, of media production. Instead it addresses the fundamental grammatical considerations that would be common to any content area and would assessible by any teacher, regardless of media production experience.
An essay or a poem?
The most important question a teacher needs to ask when embarking on a digital storytelling project with regard to media grammar and expression is this: are students producing essays or poetry? In fact, most are some combination of the two, so another way to ask this question is: Where on the continuum bounded by essay and poem does the assigment lie?
With essays teachers rightfully expect students "to come to the reader." That is, the expression should be clear, and not cause the listener "to squint or bump" as they try to understand what the storyteller is trying to say. However, with poetry we, the audience, expect to work harder. We expect to "come to the writer," to re-read passages and puzzle over nuances. In this case it is acceptable, even expected, that the digital stories will be granted more grammatical leeway.
Artistic or unfinished?
Even if "essay vs. poem" is well defined for a project, teachers face another challenge. Because students are more versed in the language of media, their grammar may be more developed than their teachers. Therefore, it is up to teachers to decide whether what they are looking at is art or simply a project that needs more work, while being open to the possibility that students have a better grasp of new media expression than they do. For centuries teachers have been the keepers of the language. In the case of new media, often times they are not.
The grammatical areas below are covered in detail in Chapter Fourteen of Digital Storytelling in the Classroom: New Media Pathways to Literacy, Learning and Creativity. Here is a simple list of the grammar headings as they are covered in the book:
The Grammar of Using Images
- A clear, focused picture
- A well-lit picture
- An appropriately composed picture
- Appropriate use of images
- Supportive image changes
- Appropriate shooting angle
The Grammar of Using Audio
- Clear audio
- Well-mixed audio
- Voice pacing and inflection
The Grammar of Using Music
- Appropriate music choices
- Appropriate role of music
Grammar of Editing, Transitions, and Titling
- Seamless transitions, unobtrusive effects
- Clear titles
- Clear citations
The Grammar of Organization
- Effective pacing
Life Around Here - Digital Storytelling Project
Middle School students around the world have created photo slide show projects called "Life 'round here".
Watch some of their videos at "Life 'round here" completed projects
Be sure to watch Holly | Richie | Kim | Dana and Tala
As you watch each video - look for a theme.
What transitions are used between images?
Examine - How does the project conclude?
Next - watch M.S.K. Running by Morne Solomon
Make your own photo project.
Tell others about life or a special part of life around your home, your school or your community.
Decide on a theme.
Plan ahead. Use a Videomap(doc) | pdf version to chart your course.
Write a tentative script.
Take/find the photos.
Adjust the script for unplanned, opportune additions.
Always be safe. Contrary to what you may see on TV, no cool or humorous shot is worth getting injured.
Here are the guidelines for the project
1. Use Microsoft Photo Story (free) or Apple's iMovie to create the show.
Read the tutorial: Tech learning's PhotoStory Tutorial or Photo Story tutorials by David Jakes.
Watch the iMovie tutorial| iMovie 08 tutorial | Create an iMovie Project | Support
iMovie tips and tutorialsUsing photos in iMovie tutorial
Begin with an idea and a storyboard | iMovie storyboard form | Storyboard 2
Movie rubrics - Rubric 1| Rubric 2 | Rubric 3 | Video Project Rubric | MYO Rubric
2. Your project should begin with a title and an introduction.
It must contain at least 10 photos or images. The project should be no longer than 5 minutes.
3. If you use someone else's photos or images, an attribution slide must be included at the end of your project. Other people's photos must be licensed under Creative Commons or be public domain images.
4. Take your photos. Read Tell the story in pictures.
- If you plan to include people's faces, get their permission, first. Respecting each person's privacy is a vital human right. (Did you notice how the kids at Richie's school avoided clear shots of people's faces?)
- What is your school's policy about taking photos of students in school? Find out.
- Generally, photos of people taken out of school in public places may not require special permission.
- It is always best to learn the laws and rules in your area or state BEFORE you take photos.
Always take a few more photos than you anticipate needing. It is much easier to delete an extra photo, than to need one at the last minute.
Here are great tips about taking photos.
5. Narrate the story.
6. Use the same transition throughout your whole project.
7. Music is not required. Only instrumental music may be used. Music is included in Photo Story. Other music must be licensed under Creative Commons or public domain. You must prove this by showing the download link or the cd.
What's with all these rules? You may want to publish your creation on the Internet or show it outside of your classroom. If you do that, it must abide by copyright laws. It is best to build your project within those rules from the start. Additionally, some people have religious or personal objections to having their picture taken. We should all respect that. Period.
8. Proof the project. It is funny how speling errors and typeos sneak in to the bets work.
Done Already? Good work.
You get an additional mission. Make a photo essay of the class doing the project. Or make a how to using photos, text, sound and video for your classmates. Demonstrate the steps for making a digital photo slide show project. Include one totally terrific tip.
The Center for Digital Storytelling
The Fundamentals of Digital Storytelling
FlickrLilli | Pics4Learning - copyright friendly images for use in education projects
Software tutorials - Photoshop, Pagemaker, Dreamweaver & more
LearningElectric - on demand tutorials that build skill
Other digital projects:
The United States of Art - Explore examples of public art in this interactive Google map. Add you town or region's public art
Explore the entries in the Wired Science student online videos
Winter Song Story Project | Best Treat of All - bird book online
Alphabet book about your state or community project | Sell your town - Why should someone move to your town?
Look into your Community's Past project - problem based learning
Habitat Project Digital Science Journal | Winter Song Digital Project | Patriotic Song Digital Project
Diminishing Consumer Waste Video
Avonworth middle-schoolers' anti-viral video catches onTribuneReview H1N1 Prevention Mission Possible
Problem Based Learning / Civics & History / Internet Hunts / Nature / Computers / PA Projects / Puzzles & Projects / Home
developed by Cynthia J. O'Hora Released to public domain in honor of Inez Milholland. Posted 12/2007